Domain shift is a common problem in clinical applications, where the training images (source domain) and the test images (target domain) are under different distributions. Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) techniques have been proposed to adapt models trained in the source domain to the target domain. However, those methods require a large number of images from the target domain for model training. In this paper, we propose a novel method for Few-Shot Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (FSUDA), where only a limited number of unlabeled target domain samples are available for training. To accomplish this challenging task, first, a spectral sensitivity map is introduced to characterize the generalization weaknesses of models in the frequency domain. We then developed a Sensitivity-guided Spectral Adversarial MixUp (SAMix) method to generate target-style images to effectively suppresses the model sensitivity, which leads to improved model generalizability in the target domain. We demonstrated the proposed method and rigorously evaluated its performance on multiple tasks using several public datasets.
Domain generalization (DG) aims to train a model to perform well in unseen domains under different distributions. This paper considers a more realistic yet more challenging scenario,namely Single Domain Generalization (Single-DG), where only a single source domain is available for training. To tackle this challenge, we first try to understand when neural networks fail to generalize? We empirically ascertain a property of a model that correlates strongly with its generalization that we coin as "model sensitivity". Based on our analysis, we propose a novel strategy of Spectral Adversarial Data Augmentation (SADA) to generate augmented images targeted at the highly sensitive frequencies. Models trained with these hard-to-learn samples can effectively suppress the sensitivity in the frequency space, which leads to improved generalization performance. Extensive experiments on multiple public datasets demonstrate the superiority of our approach, which surpasses the state-of-the-art single-DG methods.
Interpretable and explainable machine learning has seen a recent surge of interest. We focus on safety as a key motivation behind the surge and make the relationship between interpretability and safety more quantitative. Toward assessing safety, we introduce the concept of maximum deviation via an optimization problem to find the largest deviation of a supervised learning model from a reference model regarded as safe. We then show how interpretability facilitates this safety assessment. For models including decision trees, generalized linear and additive models, the maximum deviation can be computed exactly and efficiently. For tree ensembles, which are not regarded as interpretable, discrete optimization techniques can still provide informative bounds. For a broader class of piecewise Lipschitz functions, we leverage the multi-armed bandit literature to show that interpretability produces tighter (regret) bounds on the maximum deviation. We present case studies, including one on mortgage approval, to illustrate our methods and the insights about models that may be obtained from deviation maximization.
Chronic pain is a pervasive disorder which is often very disabling and is associated with comorbidities such as depression and anxiety. Neuropathic Pain (NP) is a common sub-type which is often caused due to nerve damage and has a known pathophysiology. Another common sub-type is Fibromyalgia (FM) which is described as musculoskeletal, diffuse pain that is widespread through the body. The pathophysiology of FM is poorly understood, making it very hard to diagnose. Standard medications and treatments for FM and NP differ from one another and if misdiagnosed it can cause an increase in symptom severity. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a novel framework, PainPoints, which accurately detects the sub-type of pain and generates clinical notes via summarizing the patient interviews. Specifically, PainPoints makes use of large language models to perform sentence-level classification of the text obtained from interviews of FM and NP patients with a reliable AUC of 0.83. Using a sufficiency-based interpretability approach, we explain how the fine-tuned model accurately picks up on the nuances that patients use to describe their pain. Finally, we generate summaries of these interviews via expert interventions by introducing a novel facet-based approach. PainPoints thus enables practitioners to add/drop facets and generate a custom summary based on the notion of "facet-coverage" which is also introduced in this work.
In response to growing recognition of the social, legal, and ethical impacts of new AI-based technologies, major AI and ML conferences and journals now encourage or require submitted papers to include ethics impact statements and undergo ethics reviews. This move has sparked heated debate concerning the role of ethics in AI and data science research, at times devolving into counter-productive name-calling and threats of "cancellation." We diagnose this deep ideological conflict as one between atomists and holists. Among other things, atomists espouse the idea that facts are and should be kept separate from values, while holists believe facts and values are and should be inextricable from one another. With the goals of encouraging civil discourse across disciplines and reducing disciplinary polarization, we draw on a variety of historical sources ranging from philosophy and law, to social theory and humanistic psychology, to describe each ideology's beliefs and assumptions. Finally, we call on atomists and holists within the data science community to exhibit greater empathy during ethical disagreements and propose four targeted strategies to ensure data science research benefits society.
This paper addresses the task of explaining anomalous predictions of a black-box regression model. When using a black-box model, such as one to predict building energy consumption from many sensor measurements, we often have a situation where some observed samples may significantly deviate from their prediction. It may be due to a sub-optimal black-box model, or simply because those samples are outliers. In either case, one would ideally want to compute a ``responsibility score'' indicative of the extent to which an input variable is responsible for the anomalous output. In this work, we formalize this task as a statistical inverse problem: Given model deviation from the expected value, infer the responsibility score of each of the input variables. We propose a new method called likelihood compensation (LC), which is founded on the likelihood principle and computes a correction to each input variable. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first principled framework that computes a responsibility score for real valued anomalous model deviations. We apply our approach to a real-world building energy prediction task and confirm its utility based on expert feedback.
Recent years have seen a surge of interest in the field of explainable AI (XAI), with a plethora of algorithms proposed in the literature. However, a lack of consensus on how to evaluate XAI hinders the advancement of the field. We highlight that XAI is not a monolithic set of technologies -- researchers and practitioners have begun to leverage XAI algorithms to build XAI systems that serve different usage contexts, such as model debugging and decision-support. Algorithmic research of XAI, however, often does not account for these diverse downstream usage contexts, resulting in limited effectiveness or even unintended consequences for actual users, as well as difficulties for practitioners to make technical choices. We argue that one way to close the gap is to develop evaluation methods that account for different user requirements in these usage contexts. Towards this goal, we introduce a perspective of contextualized XAI evaluation by considering the relative importance of XAI evaluation criteria for prototypical usage contexts of XAI. To explore the context-dependency of XAI evaluation criteria, we conduct two survey studies, one with XAI topical experts and another with crowd workers. Our results urge for responsible AI research with usage-informed evaluation practices, and provide a nuanced understanding of user requirements for XAI in different usage contexts.
Many works in explainable AI have focused on explaining black-box classification models. Explaining deep reinforcement learning (RL) policies in a manner that could be understood by domain users has received much less attention. In this paper, we propose a novel perspective to understanding RL policies based on identifying important states from automatically learned meta-states. The key conceptual difference between our approach and many previous ones is that we form meta-states based on locality governed by the expert policy dynamics rather than based on similarity of actions, and that we do not assume any particular knowledge of the underlying topology of the state space. Theoretically, we show that our algorithm to find meta-states converges and the objective that selects important states from each meta-state is submodular leading to efficient high quality greedy selection. Experiments on four domains (four rooms, door-key, minipacman, and pong) and a carefully conducted user study illustrate that our perspective leads to better understanding of the policy. We conjecture that this is a result of our meta-states being more intuitive in that the corresponding important states are strong indicators of tractable intermediate goals that are easier for humans to interpret and follow.
Knowledge transfer between heterogeneous source and target networks and tasks has received a lot of attention in recent times as large amounts of quality labelled data can be difficult to obtain in many applications. Existing approaches typically constrain the target deep neural network (DNN) feature representations to be close to the source DNNs feature representations, which can be limiting. We, in this paper, propose a novel adversarial multi-armed bandit approach which automatically learns to route source representations to appropriate target representations following which they are combined in meaningful ways to produce accurate target models. We see upwards of 5% accuracy improvements compared with the state-of-the-art knowledge transfer methods on four benchmark (target) image datasets CUB200, Stanford Dogs, MIT67, and Stanford40 where the source dataset is ImageNet. We qualitatively analyze the goodness of our transfer scheme by showing individual examples of the important features our target network focuses on in different layers compared with the (closest) competitors. We also observe that our improvement over other methods is higher for smaller target datasets making it an effective tool for small data applications that may benefit from transfer learning.