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In the quest to build generative surrogate models as computationally efficient alternatives to rule-based simulations, the quality of the generated samples remains a crucial frontier. So far, normalizing flows have been among the models with the best fidelity. However, as the latent space in such models is required to have the same dimensionality as the data space, scaling up normalizing flows to high dimensional datasets is not straightforward. The prior L2LFlows approach successfully used a series of separate normalizing flows and sequence of conditioning steps to circumvent this problem. In this work, we extend L2LFlows to simulate showers with a 9-times larger profile in the lateral direction. To achieve this, we introduce convolutional layers and U-Net-type connections, move from masked autoregressive flows to coupling layers, and demonstrate the successful modelling of showers in the ILD Electromagnetic Calorimeter as well as Dataset 3 from the public CaloChallenge dataset.

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Foundation models are multi-dataset and multi-task machine learning methods that once pre-trained can be fine-tuned for a large variety of downstream applications. The successful development of such general-purpose models for physics data would be a major breakthrough as they could improve the achievable physics performance while at the same time drastically reduce the required amount of training time and data. We report significant progress on this challenge on several fronts. First, a comprehensive set of evaluation methods is introduced to judge the quality of an encoding from physics data into a representation suitable for the autoregressive generation of particle jets with transformer architectures (the common backbone of foundation models). These measures motivate the choice of a higher-fidelity tokenization compared to previous works. Finally, we demonstrate transfer learning between an unsupervised problem (jet generation) and a classic supervised task (jet tagging) with our new OmniJet-$\alpha$ model. This is the first successful transfer between two different and actively studied classes of tasks and constitutes a major step in the building of foundation models for particle physics.

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Patrick Odagiu, Zhiqiang Que, Javier Duarte, Johannes Haller, Gregor Kasieczka, Artur Lobanov, Vladimir Loncar, Wayne Luk, Jennifer Ngadiuba, Maurizio Pierini(+6 more)

We study various machine learning based algorithms for performing accurate jet flavor classification on field-programmable gate arrays and demonstrate how latency and resource consumption scale with the input size and choice of algorithm. These architectures provide an initial design for models that could be used for tagging at the CERN LHC during its high-luminosity phase. The high-luminosity upgrade will lead to a five-fold increase in its instantaneous luminosity for proton-proton collisions and, in turn, higher data volume and complexity, such as the availability of jet constituents. Through quantization-aware training and efficient hardware implementations, we show that O(100) ns inference of complex architectures such as deep sets and interaction networks is feasible at a low computational resource cost.

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Uncertainty estimation is a key issue when considering the application of deep neural network methods in science and engineering. In this work, we introduce a novel algorithm that quantifies epistemic uncertainty via Monte Carlo sampling from a tempered posterior distribution. It combines the well established Metropolis Adjusted Langevin Algorithm (MALA) with momentum-based optimization using Adam and leverages a prolate proposal distribution, to efficiently draw from the posterior. We prove that the constructed chain admits the Gibbs posterior as an invariant distribution and converges to this Gibbs posterior in total variation distance. Numerical evaluations are postponed to a first revision.

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We present R-ANODE, a new method for data-driven, model-agnostic resonant anomaly detection that raises the bar for both performance and interpretability. The key to R-ANODE is to enhance the inductive bias of the anomaly detection task by fitting a normalizing flow directly to the small and unknown signal component, while holding fixed a background model (also a normalizing flow) learned from sidebands. In doing so, R-ANODE is able to outperform all classifier-based, weakly-supervised approaches, as well as the previous ANODE method which fit a density estimator to all of the data in the signal region instead of just the signal. We show that the method works equally well whether the unknown signal fraction is learned or fixed, and is even robust to signal fraction misspecification. Finally, with the learned signal model we can sample and gain qualitative insights into the underlying anomaly, which greatly enhances the interpretability of resonant anomaly detection and offers the possibility of simultaneously discovering and characterizing the new physics that could be hiding in the data.

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We introduce the first generative model trained on the JetClass dataset. Our model generates jets at the constituent level, and it is a permutation-equivariant continuous normalizing flow (CNF) trained with the flow matching technique. It is conditioned on the jet type, so that a single model can be used to generate the ten different jet types of JetClass. For the first time, we also introduce a generative model that goes beyond the kinematic features of jet constituents. The JetClass dataset includes more features, such as particle-ID and track impact parameter, and we demonstrate that our CNF can accurately model all of these additional features as well. Our generative model for JetClass expands on the versatility of existing jet generation techniques, enhancing their potential utility in high-energy physics research, and offering a more comprehensive understanding of the generated jets.

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A Metropolis-Hastings step is widely used for gradient-based Markov chain Monte Carlo methods in uncertainty quantification. By calculating acceptance probabilities on batches, a stochastic Metropolis-Hastings step saves computational costs, but reduces the effective sample size. We show that this obstacle can be avoided by a simple correction term. We study statistical properties of the resulting stationary distribution of the chain if the corrected stochastic Metropolis-Hastings approach is applied to sample from a Gibbs posterior distribution in a nonparametric regression setting. Focusing on deep neural network regression, we prove a PAC-Bayes oracle inequality which yields optimal contraction rates and we analyze the diameter and show high coverage probability of the resulting credible sets. With a numerical example in a high-dimensional parameter space, we illustrate that credible sets and contraction rates of the stochastic Metropolis-Hastings algorithm indeed behave similar to those obtained from the classical Metropolis-adjusted Langevin algorithm.

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Erik Buhmann, Cedric Ewen, Darius A. Faroughy, Tobias Golling, Gregor Kasieczka, Matthew Leigh, Guillaume Quétant, John Andrew Raine, Debajyoti Sengupta, David Shih

Jets at the LHC, typically consisting of a large number of highly correlated particles, are a fascinating laboratory for deep generative modeling. In this paper, we present two novel methods that generate LHC jets as point clouds efficiently and accurately. We introduce \epcjedi, which combines score-matching diffusion models with the Equivariant Point Cloud (EPiC) architecture based on the deep sets framework. This model offers a much faster alternative to previous transformer-based diffusion models without reducing the quality of the generated jets. In addition, we introduce \epcfm, the first permutation equivariant continuous normalizing flow (CNF) for particle cloud generation. This model is trained with {\it flow-matching}, a scalable and easy-to-train objective based on optimal transport that directly regresses the vector fields connecting the Gaussian noise prior to the data distribution. Our experiments demonstrate that \epcjedi and \epcfm both achieve state-of-the-art performance on the top-quark JetNet datasets whilst maintaining fast generation speed. Most notably, we find that the \epcfm model consistently outperforms all the other generative models considered here across every metric. Finally, we also introduce two new particle cloud performance metrics: the first based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence between feature distributions, the second is the negative log-posterior of a multi-model ParticleNet classifier.

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Erik Buhmann, Frank Gaede, Gregor Kasieczka, Anatolii Korol, William Korcari, Katja Krüger, Peter McKeown

Fast simulation of the energy depositions in high-granular detectors is needed for future collider experiments with ever increasing luminosities. Generative machine learning (ML) models have been shown to speed up and augment the traditional simulation chain in physics analysis. However, the majority of previous efforts were limited to models relying on fixed, regular detector readout geometries. A major advancement is the recently introduced CaloClouds model, a geometry-independent diffusion model, which generates calorimeter showers as point clouds for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the envisioned International Large Detector (ILD). In this work, we introduce CaloClouds II which features a number of key improvements. This includes continuous time score-based modelling, which allows for a 25 step sampling with comparable fidelity to CaloClouds while yielding a $6\times$ speed-up over Geant4 on a single CPU ($5\times$ over CaloClouds). We further distill the diffusion model into a consistency model allowing for accurate sampling in a single step and resulting in a $46\times$ ($37\times$) speed-up. This constitutes the first application of consistency distillation for the generation of calorimeter showers.

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Erik Buhmann, Sascha Diefenbacher, Engin Eren, Frank Gaede, Gregor Kasieczka, Anatolii Korol, William Korcari, Katja Krüger, Peter McKeown

Simulating showers of particles in highly-granular detectors is a key frontier in the application of machine learning to particle physics. Achieving high accuracy and speed with generative machine learning models would enable them to augment traditional simulations and alleviate a major computing constraint. This work achieves a major breakthrough in this task by, for the first time, directly generating a point cloud of a few thousand space points with energy depositions in the detector in 3D space without relying on a fixed-grid structure. This is made possible by two key innovations: i) using recent improvements in generative modeling we apply a diffusion model to generate ii) an initial even higher-resolution point cloud of up to 40,000 so-called Geant4 steps which is subsequently down-sampled to the desired number of up to 6,000 space points. We showcase the performance of this approach using the specific example of simulating photon showers in the planned electromagnetic calorimeter of the International Large Detector (ILD) and achieve overall good modeling of physically relevant distributions.

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