This paper introduces a novel objective function for quality mean opinion score (MOS) prediction of unseen speech synthesis systems. The proposed function measures the similarity of relative positions of predicted MOS values, in a mini-batch, rather than the actual MOS values. That is the partial rank similarity is measured (PRS) rather than the individual MOS values as with the L1 loss. Our experiments on out-of-domain speech synthesis systems demonstrate that the PRS outperforms L1 loss in zero-shot and semi-supervised settings, exhibiting stronger correlation with ground truth. These findings highlight the importance of considering rank order, as done by PRS, when training MOS prediction models. We also argue that mean squared error and linear correlation coefficient metrics may be unreliable for evaluating MOS prediction models. In conclusion, PRS-trained models provide a robust framework for evaluating speech quality and offer insights for developing high-quality speech synthesis systems. Code and models are available at github.com/nii-yamagishilab/partial_rank_similarity/
We present the second edition of the VoiceMOS Challenge, a scientific event that aims to promote the study of automatic prediction of the mean opinion score (MOS) of synthesized and processed speech. This year, we emphasize real-world and challenging zero-shot out-of-domain MOS prediction with three tracks for three different voice evaluation scenarios. Ten teams from industry and academia in seven different countries participated. Surprisingly, we found that the two sub-tracks of French text-to-speech synthesis had large differences in their predictability, and that singing voice-converted samples were not as difficult to predict as we had expected. Use of diverse datasets and listener information during training appeared to be successful approaches.
We explore the use of neural synthesis for acoustic guitar from string-wise MIDI input. We propose four different systems and compare them with both objective metrics and subjective evaluation against natural audio and a sample-based baseline. We iteratively develop these four systems by making various considerations on the architecture and intermediate tasks, such as predicting pitch and loudness control features. We find that formulating the control feature prediction task as a classification task rather than a regression task yields better results. Furthermore, we find that our simplest proposed system, which directly predicts synthesis parameters from MIDI input performs the best out of the four proposed systems. Audio examples are available at https://erl-j.github.io/neural-guitar-web-supplement.
The success of deep learning in speaker recognition relies heavily on the use of large datasets. However, the data-hungry nature of deep learning methods has already being questioned on account the ethical, privacy, and legal concerns that arise when using large-scale datasets of natural speech collected from real human speakers. For example, the widely-used VoxCeleb2 dataset for speaker recognition is no longer accessible from the official website. To mitigate these concerns, this work presents an initiative to generate a privacy-friendly synthetic VoxCeleb2 dataset that ensures the quality of the generated speech in terms of privacy, utility, and fairness. We also discuss the challenges of using synthetic data for the downstream task of speaker verification.
With the growing amount of musical data available, automatic instrument recognition, one of the essential problems in Music Information Retrieval (MIR), is drawing more and more attention. While automatic recognition of single instruments has been well-studied, it remains challenging for polyphonic, multi-instrument musical recordings. This work presents our efforts toward building a robust end-to-end instrument recognition system for polyphonic multi-instrument music. We train our model using a pre-training and fine-tuning approach: we use a large amount of monophonic musical data for pre-training and subsequently fine-tune the model for the polyphonic ensemble. In pre-training, we apply data augmentation techniques to alleviate the domain gap between monophonic musical data and real-world music. We evaluate our method on the IRMAS testing data, a polyphonic musical dataset comprising professionally-produced commercial music recordings. Experimental results show that our best model achieves a micro F1-score of 0.674 and an LRAP of 0.814, meaning 10.9% and 8.9% relative improvement compared with the previous state-of-the-art end-to-end approach. Also, we are able to build a lightweight model, achieving competitive performance with only 519K trainable parameters.
Speaker anonymization aims to conceal a speaker's identity while preserving content information in speech. Current mainstream neural-network speaker anonymization systems disentangle speech into prosody-related, content, and speaker representations. The speaker representation is then anonymized by a selection-based speaker anonymizer that uses a mean vector over a set of randomly selected speaker vectors from an external pool of English speakers. However, the resulting anonymized vectors are subject to severe privacy leakage against powerful attackers, reduction in speaker diversity, and language mismatch problems for unseen language speaker anonymization. To generate diverse, language-neutral speaker vectors, this paper proposes an anonymizer based on an orthogonal Householder neural network (OHNN). Specifically, the OHNN acts like a rotation to transform the original speaker vectors into anonymized speaker vectors, which are constrained to follow the distribution over the original speaker vector space. A basic classification loss is introduced to ensure that anonymized speaker vectors from different speakers have unique speaker identities. To further protect speaker identities, an improved classification loss and similarity loss are used to push original-anonymized sample pairs away from each other. Experiments on VoicePrivacy Challenge datasets in English and the AISHELL-3 dataset in Mandarin demonstrate the proposed anonymizer's effectiveness.
Spoof localization, also called segment-level detection, is a crucial task that aims to locate spoofs in partially spoofed audio. The equal error rate (EER) is widely used to measure performance for such biometric scenarios. Although EER is the only threshold-free metric, it is usually calculated in a point-based way that uses scores and references with a pre-defined temporal resolution and counts the number of misclassified segments. Such point-based measurement overly relies on this resolution and may not accurately measure misclassified ranges. To properly measure misclassified ranges and better evaluate spoof localization performance, we upgrade point-based EER to range-based EER. Then, we adapt the binary search algorithm for calculating range-based EER and compare it with the classical point-based EER. Our analyses suggest utilizing either range-based EER, or point-based EER with a proper temporal resolution can fairly and properly evaluate the performance of spoof localization.
Mean Opinion Score (MOS) is a popular measure for evaluating synthesized speech. However, the scores obtained in MOS tests are heavily dependent upon many contextual factors. One such factor is the overall range of quality of the samples presented in the test -- listeners tend to try to use the entire range of scoring options available to them regardless of this, a phenomenon which is known as range-equalizing bias. In this paper, we systematically investigate the effects of range-equalizing bias on MOS tests for synthesized speech by conducting a series of listening tests in which we progressively "zoom in" on a smaller number of systems in the higher-quality range. This allows us to better understand and quantify the effects of range-equalizing bias in MOS tests.
The ability of countermeasure models to generalize from seen speech synthesis methods to unseen ones has been investigated in the ASVspoof challenge. However, a new mismatch scenario in which fake audio may be generated from real audio with unseen genres has not been studied thoroughly. To this end, we first use five different vocoders to create a new dataset called CN-Spoof based on the CN-Celeb1\&2 datasets. Then, we design two auxiliary objectives for regularization via meta-optimization and a genre alignment module, respectively, and combine them with the main anti-spoofing objective using learnable weights for multiple loss terms. The results on our cross-genre evaluation dataset for anti-spoofing show that the proposed method significantly improved the generalization ability of the countermeasures compared with the baseline system in the genre mismatch scenario.