Due to the greatly improved capabilities of devices, massive data, and increasing concern about data privacy, Federated Learning (FL) has been increasingly considered for applications to wireless communication networks (WCNs). Wireless FL (WFL) is a distributed method of training a global deep learning model in which a large number of participants each train a local model on their training datasets and then upload the local model updates to a central server. However, in general, non-independent and identically distributed (non-IID) data of WCNs raises concerns about robustness, as a malicious participant could potentially inject a "backdoor" into the global model by uploading poisoned data or models over WCN. This could cause the model to misclassify malicious inputs as a specific target class while behaving normally with benign inputs. This survey provides a comprehensive review of the latest backdoor attacks and defense mechanisms. It classifies them according to their targets (data poisoning or model poisoning), the attack phase (local data collection, training, or aggregation), and defense stage (local training, before aggregation, during aggregation, or after aggregation). The strengths and limitations of existing attack strategies and defense mechanisms are analyzed in detail. Comparisons of existing attack methods and defense designs are carried out, pointing to noteworthy findings, open challenges, and potential future research directions related to security and privacy of WFL.
This study centers on Line-of-Sight (LoS) MIMO communication enabled by a Transmissive Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface (RIS) operating in the Terahertz (THz) frequency bands. The study demonstrates that the introduction of RIS can render the curvature of the wavefront apparent over the transmit and receive arrays, even when they are positioned in the far field from each other. This phenomenon contributes to an enhancement in spatial multiplexing. Notably, simulation results underline that the optimal placement of the RIS in the near-field is not solely contingent on proximity to the transmitter (Tx) or receiver (Rx) but relies on the inter-antenna spacing of the Tx and Rx.
Federated learning (FL) can suffer from a communication bottleneck when deployed in mobile networks, limiting participating clients and deterring FL convergence. The impact of practical air interfaces with discrete modulations on FL has not previously been studied in depth. This paper proposes a new paradigm of flexible aggregation-based FL (F$^2$L) over orthogonal frequency division multiple-access (OFDMA) air interface, termed as ``OFDMA-F$^2$L'', allowing selected clients to train local models for various numbers of iterations before uploading the models in each aggregation round. We optimize the selections of clients, subchannels and modulations, adapting to channel conditions and computing powers. Specifically, we derive an upper bound on the optimality gap of OFDMA-F$^2$L capturing the impact of the selections, and show that the upper bound is minimized by maximizing the weighted sum rate of the clients per aggregation round. A Lagrange-dual based method is developed to solve this challenging mixed integer program of weighted sum rate maximization, revealing that a ``winner-takes-all'' policy provides the almost surely optimal client, subchannel, and modulation selections. Experiments on multilayer perceptrons and convolutional neural networks show that OFDMA-F$^2$L with optimal selections can significantly improve the training convergence and accuracy, e.g., by about 18\% and 5\%, compared to potential alternatives.
Channel state information (CSI) estimation is a critical issue in the design of modern massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) networks. With the increasing number of users, assigning orthogonal pilots to everyone incurs a large overhead that strongly penalizes the system's spectral efficiency (SE). It becomes thus necessary to reuse pilots, giving rise to pilot contamination, a vital performance bottleneck of mMIMO networks. Reusing pilots among the users of the same cell is a desirable operation condition from the perspective of reducing training overheads; however, the intra-cell pilot contamination might worsen due to the users' proximity. Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs), capable of smartly controlling the wireless channel, can be leveraged for intra-cell pilot reuse. In this paper, our main contribution is a RIS-aided approach for intra-cell pilot reuse and the corresponding channel estimation method. Relying upon the knowledge of only statistical CSI, we optimize the RIS phase shifts based on a manifold optimization framework and the RIS positioning based on a deterministic approach. The extensive numerical results highlight the remarkable performance improvements the proposed scheme achieves (for both uplink and downlink transmissions) compared to other alternatives.
3D holographic communication has the potential to revolutionize the way people interact with each other in virtual spaces, offering immersive and realistic experiences. However, demands for high data rates, extremely low latency, and high computations to enable this technology pose a significant challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a novel job scheduling algorithm that leverages Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) servers in order to minimize the total latency in 3D holographic communication. One of the motivations for this work is to prevent the uncanny valley effect, which can occur when the latency hinders the seamless and real-time rendering of holographic content, leading to a less convincing and less engaging user experience. Our proposed algorithm dynamically allocates computation tasks to MEC servers, considering the network conditions, computational capabilities of the servers, and the requirements of the 3D holographic communication application. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the performance of our algorithm in terms of latency reduction, and the results demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms other baseline methods. Furthermore, we present a practical scenario involving Augmented Reality (AR), which not only illustrates the applicability of our algorithm but also highlights the importance of minimizing latency in achieving high-quality holographic views. By efficiently distributing the computation workload among MEC servers and reducing the overall latency, our proposed algorithm enhances the user experience in 3D holographic communications and paves the way for the widespread adoption of this technology in various applications, such as telemedicine, remote collaboration, and entertainment.
We propose a variational inference (VI)-based channel state information (CSI) estimation approach in a fully-passive reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-aided mmWave single-user single-input multiple-output (SIMO) communication system. Specifically, we first propose a VI-based joint channel estimation method to estimate the user-equipment (UE) to RIS (UE-RIS) and RIS to base station (RIS-BS) channels using uplink training signals in a passive RIS setup. However, updating the phase-shifts based on the instantaneous CSI (I-CSI) leads to a high signaling overhead especially due to the short coherence block of the UE-RIS channel. Therefore, to reduce the signaling complexity, we propose a VI-based method to estimate the RIS-BS channel along with the covariance matrix of the UE-RIS channel that remains quasi-static for a longer period than the instantaneous UE-RIS channel. In the VI framework, we approximate the posterior of the channel gains/covariance matrix with convenient distributions given the received uplink training signals. Then, the learned distributions, which are close to the true posterior distributions in terms of Kullback-Leibler divergence, are leveraged to obtain the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of the considered CSI. The simulation results demonstrate that MAP channel estimation using approximated posteriors yields a capacity that is close to the one achieved with true posteriors, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Furthermore, our results show that estimating the channel covariance matrix improves the spectral efficiency by reducing the pilot signaling required to obtain the phase-shifts for the RIS elements in a channel-varying environment.
Large language models (LLMs) have triggered tremendous success to empower daily life by generative information, and the personalization of LLMs could further contribute to their applications due to better alignment with human intents. Towards personalized generative services, a collaborative cloud-edge methodology sounds promising, as it facilitates the effective orchestration of heterogeneous distributed communication and computing resources. In this article, after discussing the pros and cons of several candidate cloud-edge collaboration techniques, we put forward NetGPT to capably deploy appropriate LLMs at the edge and the cloud in accordance with their computing capacity. In addition, edge LLMs could efficiently leverage location-based information for personalized prompt completion, thus benefiting the interaction with cloud LLMs. After deploying representative open-source LLMs (e.g., GPT-2-base and LLaMA model) at the edge and the cloud, we present the feasibility of NetGPT on the basis of low-rank adaptation-based light-weight fine-tuning. Subsequently, we highlight substantial essential changes required for a native artificial intelligence (AI) network architecture towards NetGPT, with special emphasis on deeper integration of communications and computing resources and careful calibration of logical AI workflow. Furthermore, we demonstrate several by-product benefits of NetGPT, given edge LLM's astonishing capability to predict trends and infer intents, which possibly leads to a unified solution for intelligent network management \& orchestration. In a nutshell, we argue that NetGPT is a promising native-AI network architecture beyond provisioning personalized generative services.
In cellular networks, User Equipment (UE) handoff from one Base Station (BS) to another, giving rise to the load balancing problem among the BSs. To address this problem, BSs can work collaboratively to deliver a smooth migration (or handoff) and satisfy the UEs' service requirements. This paper formulates the load balancing problem as a Markov game and proposes a Robust Multi-agent Attention Actor-Critic (Robust-MA3C) algorithm that can facilitate collaboration among the BSs (i.e., agents). In particular, to solve the Markov game and find a Nash equilibrium policy, we embrace the idea of adopting a nature agent to model the system uncertainty. Moreover, we utilize the self-attention mechanism, which encourages high-performance BSs to assist low-performance BSs. In addition, we consider two types of schemes, which can facilitate load balancing for both active UEs and idle UEs. We carry out extensive evaluations by simulations, and simulation results illustrate that, compared to the state-of-the-art MARL methods, Robust-\ours~scheme can improve the overall performance by up to 45%.
* IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) 2023
Data-driven machine learning (ML) is promoted as one potential technology to be used in next-generations wireless systems. This led to a large body of research work that applies ML techniques to solve problems in different layers of the wireless transmission link. However, most of these applications rely on supervised learning which assumes that the source (training) and target (test) data are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d). This assumption is often violated in the real world due to domain or distribution shifts between the source and the target data. Thus, it is important to ensure that these algorithms generalize to out-of-distribution (OOD) data. In this context, domain generalization (DG) tackles the OOD-related issues by learning models on different and distinct source domains/datasets with generalization capabilities to unseen new domains without additional finetuning. Motivated by the importance of DG requirements for wireless applications, we present a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in DG and the different sources of domain shift. We also summarize the existing DG methods and review their applications in selected wireless communication problems, and conclude with insights and open questions.