Objects are crucial for understanding human-object interactions. By identifying the relevant objects, one can also predict potential future interactions or actions that may occur with these objects. In this paper, we study the problem of Short-Term Object interaction anticipation (STA) and propose NAOGAT (Next-Active-Object Guided Anticipation Transformer), a multi-modal end-to-end transformer network, that attends to objects in observed frames in order to anticipate the next-active-object (NAO) and, eventually, to guide the model to predict context-aware future actions. The task is challenging since it requires anticipating future action along with the object with which the action occurs and the time after which the interaction will begin, a.k.a. the time to contact (TTC). Compared to existing video modeling architectures for action anticipation, NAOGAT captures the relationship between objects and the global scene context in order to predict detections for the next active object and anticipate relevant future actions given these detections, leveraging the objects' dynamics to improve accuracy. One of the key strengths of our approach, in fact, is its ability to exploit the motion dynamics of objects within a given clip, which is often ignored by other models, and separately decoding the object-centric and motion-centric information. Through our experiments, we show that our model outperforms existing methods on two separate datasets, Ego4D and EpicKitchens-100 ("Unseen Set"), as measured by several additional metrics, such as time to contact, and next-active-object localization. The code will be available upon acceptance.
This paper aims to address the unsupervised video anomaly detection (VAD) problem, which involves classifying each frame in a video as normal or abnormal, without any access to labels. To accomplish this, the proposed method employs conditional diffusion models, where the input data is the spatiotemporal features extracted from a pre-trained network, and the condition is the features extracted from compact motion representations that summarize a given video segment in terms of its motion and appearance. Our method utilizes a data-driven threshold and considers a high reconstruction error as an indicator of anomalous events. This study is the first to utilize compact motion representations for VAD and the experiments conducted on two large-scale VAD benchmarks demonstrate that they supply relevant information to the diffusion model, and consequently improve VAD performances w.r.t the prior art. Importantly, our method exhibits better generalization performance across different datasets, notably outperforming both the state-of-the-art and baseline methods. The code of our method is available at https://github.com/AnilOsmanTur/conditioned_video_anomaly_diffusion
Gaze target detection aims to predict the image location where the person is looking and the probability that a gaze is out of the scene. Several works have tackled this task by regressing a gaze heatmap centered on the gaze location, however, they overlooked decoding the relationship between the people and the gazed objects. This paper proposes a Transformer-based architecture that automatically detects objects (including heads) in the scene to build associations between every head and the gazed-head/object, resulting in a comprehensive, explainable gaze analysis composed of: gaze target area, gaze pixel point, the class and the image location of the gazed-object. Upon evaluation of the in-the-wild benchmarks, our method achieves state-of-the-art results on all metrics (up to 2.91% gain in AUC, 50% reduction in gaze distance, and 9% gain in out-of-frame average precision) for gaze target detection and 11-13% improvement in average precision for the classification and the localization of the gazed-objects. The code of the proposed method is available https://github.com/francescotonini/object-aware-gaze-target-detection
In this technical report, we describe the Guided-Attention mechanism based solution for the short-term anticipation (STA) challenge for the EGO4D challenge. It combines the object detections, and the spatiotemporal features extracted from video clips, enhancing the motion and contextual information, and further decoding the object-centric and motion-centric information to address the problem of STA in egocentric videos. For the challenge, we build our model on top of StillFast with Guided Attention applied on fast network. Our model obtains better performance on the validation set and also achieves state-of-the-art (SOTA) results on the challenge test set for EGO4D Short-Term Object Interaction Anticipation Challenge.
* Winner of CVPR@2023 Ego4D STA challenge. arXiv admin note:
substantial text overlap with arXiv:2305.12953
Short-term action anticipation (STA) in first-person videos is a challenging task that involves understanding the next active object interactions and predicting future actions. Existing action anticipation methods have primarily focused on utilizing features extracted from video clips, but often overlooked the importance of objects and their interactions. To this end, we propose a novel approach that applies a guided attention mechanism between the objects, and the spatiotemporal features extracted from video clips, enhancing the motion and contextual information, and further decoding the object-centric and motion-centric information to address the problem of STA in egocentric videos. Our method, GANO (Guided Attention for Next active Objects) is a multi-modal, end-to-end, single transformer-based network. The experimental results performed on the largest egocentric dataset demonstrate that GANO outperforms the existing state-of-the-art methods for the prediction of the next active object label, its bounding box location, the corresponding future action, and the time to contact the object. The ablation study shows the positive contribution of the guided attention mechanism compared to other fusion methods. Moreover, it is possible to improve the next active object location and class label prediction results of GANO by just appending the learnable object tokens with the region of interest embeddings.
This paper investigates the performance of diffusion models for video anomaly detection (VAD) within the most challenging but also the most operational scenario in which the data annotations are not used. As being sparse, diverse, contextual, and often ambiguous, detecting abnormal events precisely is a very ambitious task. To this end, we rely only on the information-rich spatio-temporal data, and the reconstruction power of the diffusion models such that a high reconstruction error is utilized to decide the abnormality. Experiments performed on two large-scale video anomaly detection datasets demonstrate the consistent improvement of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art generative models while in some cases our method achieves better scores than the more complex models. This is the first study using a diffusion model and examining its parameters' influence to present guidance for VAD in surveillance scenarios.
This paper addresses the problem of anticipating the next-active-object location in the future, for a given egocentric video clip where the contact might happen, before any action takes place. The problem is considerably hard, as we aim at estimating the position of such objects in a scenario where the observed clip and the action segment are separated by the so-called ``time to contact'' (TTC) segment. Many methods have been proposed to anticipate the action of a person based on previous hand movements and interactions with the surroundings. However, there have been no attempts to investigate the next possible interactable object, and its future location with respect to the first-person's motion and the field-of-view drift during the TTC window. We define this as the task of Anticipating the Next ACTive Object (ANACTO). To this end, we propose a transformer-based self-attention framework to identify and locate the next-active-object in an egocentric clip. We benchmark our method on three datasets: EpicKitchens-100, EGTEA+ and Ego4D. We also provide annotations for the first two datasets. Our approach performs best compared to relevant baseline methods. We also conduct ablation studies to understand the effectiveness of the proposed and baseline methods on varying conditions. Code and ANACTO task annotations will be made available upon paper acceptance.
This paper addresses the gaze target detection problem in single images captured from the third-person perspective. We present a multimodal deep architecture to infer where a person in a scene is looking. This spatial model is trained on the head images of the person-of- interest, scene and depth maps representing rich context information. Our model, unlike several prior art, do not require supervision of the gaze angles, do not rely on head orientation information and/or location of the eyes of person-of-interest. Extensive experiments demonstrate the stronger performance of our method on multiple benchmark datasets. We also investigated several variations of our method by altering joint-learning of multimodal data. Some variations outperform a few prior art as well. First time in this paper, we inspect domain adaption for gaze target detection, and we empower our multimodal network to effectively handle the domain gap across datasets. The code of the proposed method is available at https://github.com/francescotonini/multimodal-across-domains-gaze-target-detection.
* Accepted to 24th ACM International Conference on Multimodal
Interaction (ICMI 2022)
Emotion recognition is involved in several real-world applications. With an increase in available modalities, automatic understanding of emotions is being performed more accurately. The success in Multimodal Emotion Recognition (MER), primarily relies on the supervised learning paradigm. However, data annotation is expensive, time-consuming, and as emotion expression and perception depends on several factors (e.g., age, gender, culture) obtaining labels with a high reliability is hard. Motivated by these, we focus on unsupervised feature learning for MER. We consider discrete emotions, and as modalities text, audio and vision are used. Our method, as being based on contrastive loss between pairwise modalities, is the first attempt in MER literature. Our end-to-end feature learning approach has several differences (and advantages) compared to existing MER methods: i) it is unsupervised, so the learning is lack of data labelling cost; ii) it does not require data spatial augmentation, modality alignment, large number of batch size or epochs; iii) it applies data fusion only at inference; and iv) it does not require backbones pre-trained on emotion recognition task. The experiments on benchmark datasets show that our method outperforms several baseline approaches and unsupervised learning methods applied in MER. Particularly, it even surpasses a few supervised MER state-of-the-art.
* Accepted to 26th International Conference on Pattern Recognition