Modern graph neural networks (GNNs) can be sensitive to changes in the input graph structure and node features, potentially resulting in unpredictable behavior and degraded performance. In this work, we introduce a spectral framework known as SAGMAN for examining the stability of GNNs. This framework assesses the distance distortions that arise from the nonlinear mappings of GNNs between the input and output manifolds: when two nearby nodes on the input manifold are mapped (through a GNN model) to two distant ones on the output manifold, it implies a large distance distortion and thus a poor GNN stability. We propose a distance-preserving graph dimension reduction (GDR) approach that utilizes spectral graph embedding and probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to create low-dimensional input/output graph-based manifolds for meaningful stability analysis. Our empirical evaluations show that SAGMAN effectively assesses the stability of each node when subjected to various edge or feature perturbations, offering a scalable approach for evaluating the stability of GNNs, extending to applications within recommendation systems. Furthermore, we illustrate its utility in downstream tasks, notably in enhancing GNN stability and facilitating adversarial targeted attacks.
Graph neural networks (GNNs) have been increasingly deployed in various applications that involve learning on non-Euclidean data. However, recent studies show that GNNs are vulnerable to graph adversarial attacks. Although there are several defense methods to improve GNN robustness by eliminating adversarial components, they may also impair the underlying clean graph structure that contributes to GNN training. In addition, few of those defense models can scale to large graphs due to their high computational complexity and memory usage. In this paper, we propose GARNET, a scalable spectral method to boost the adversarial robustness of GNN models. GARNET first leverages weighted spectral embedding to construct a base graph, which is not only resistant to adversarial attacks but also contains critical (clean) graph structure for GNN training. Next, GARNET further refines the base graph by pruning additional uncritical edges based on probabilistic graphical model. GARNET has been evaluated on various datasets, including a large graph with millions of nodes. Our extensive experiment results show that GARNET achieves adversarial accuracy improvement and runtime speedup over state-of-the-art GNN (defense) models by up to 13.27% and 14.7x, respectively.
A black-box spectral method is introduced for evaluating the adversarial robustness of a given machine learning (ML) model. Our approach, named SPADE, exploits bijective distance mapping between the input/output graphs constructed for approximating the manifolds corresponding to the input/output data. By leveraging the generalized Courant-Fischer theorem, we propose a SPADE score for evaluating the adversarial robustness of a given model, which is proved to be an upper bound of the best Lipschitz constant under the manifold setting. To reveal the most non-robust data samples highly vulnerable to adversarial attacks, we develop a spectral graph embedding procedure leveraging dominant generalized eigenvectors. This embedding step allows assigning each data sample a robustness score that can be further harnessed for more effective adversarial training. Our experiments show the proposed SPADE method leads to promising empirical results for neural network models adversarially trained with the MNIST and CIFAR-10 data sets.
Graph embedding techniques have been increasingly deployed in a multitude of different applications that involve learning on non-Euclidean data. However, existing graph embedding models either fail to incorporate node attribute information during training or suffer from node attribute noise, which compromises the accuracy. Moreover, very few of them scale to large graphs due to their high computational complexity and memory usage. In this paper we propose GraphZoom, a multi-level framework for improving both accuracy and scalability of unsupervised graph embedding algorithms. GraphZoom first performs graph fusion to generate a new graph that effectively encodes the topology of the original graph and the node attribute information. This fused graph is then repeatedly coarsened into a much smaller graph by merging nodes with high spectral similarities. GraphZoom allows any existing embedding methods to be applied to the coarsened graph, before it progressively refine the embeddings obtained at the coarsest level to increasingly finer graphs. We have evaluated our approach on a number of popular graph datasets for both transductive and inductive tasks. Our experiments show that GraphZoom increases the classification accuracy and significantly reduces the run time compared to state-of-the-art unsupervised embedding methods.