We propose Guided Positive Sampling Self-Supervised Learning (GPS-SSL), a general method to inject a priori knowledge into Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) positive samples selection. Current SSL methods leverage Data-Augmentations (DA) for generating positive samples and incorporate prior knowledge - an incorrect, or too weak DA will drastically reduce the quality of the learned representation. GPS-SSL proposes instead to design a metric space where Euclidean distances become a meaningful proxy for semantic relationship. In that space, it is now possible to generate positive samples from nearest neighbor sampling. Any prior knowledge can now be embedded into that metric space independently from the employed DA. From its simplicity, GPS-SSL is applicable to any SSL method, e.g. SimCLR or BYOL. A key benefit of GPS-SSL is in reducing the pressure in tailoring strong DAs. For example GPS-SSL reaches 85.58% on Cifar10 with weak DA while the baseline only reaches 37.51%. We therefore move a step forward towards the goal of making SSL less reliant on DA. We also show that even when using strong DAs, GPS-SSL outperforms the baselines on under-studied domains. We evaluate GPS-SSL along with multiple baseline SSL methods on numerous downstream datasets from different domains when the models use strong or minimal data augmentations. We hope that GPS-SSL will open new avenues in studying how to inject a priori knowledge into SSL in a principled manner.
Curation methods for massive vision-language datasets trade off between dataset size and quality. However, even the highest quality of available curated captions are far too short to capture the rich visual detail in an image. To show the value of dense and highly-aligned image-text pairs, we collect the Densely Captioned Images (DCI) dataset, containing 8012 natural images human-annotated with mask-aligned descriptions averaging above 1000 words each. With precise and reliable captions associated with specific parts of an image, we can evaluate vision-language models' (VLMs) understanding of image content with a novel task that matches each caption with its corresponding subcrop. As current models are often limited to 77 text tokens, we also introduce a summarized version (sDCI) in which each caption length is limited. We show that modern techniques that make progress on standard benchmarks do not correspond with significant improvement on our sDCI based benchmark. Lastly, we finetune CLIP using sDCI and show significant improvements over the baseline despite a small training set. By releasing the first human annotated dense image captioning dataset, we hope to enable the development of new benchmarks or fine-tuning recipes for the next generation of VLMs to come.
Current status quo in machine learning is to use static datasets of real images for training, which often come from long-tailed distributions. With the recent advances in generative models, researchers have started augmenting these static datasets with synthetic data, reporting moderate performance improvements on classification tasks. We hypothesize that these performance gains are limited by the lack of feedback from the classifier to the generative model, which would promote the usefulness of the generated samples to improve the classifier's performance. In this work, we introduce a framework for augmenting static datasets with useful synthetic samples, which leverages one-shot feedback from the classifier to drive the sampling of the generative model. In order for the framework to be effective, we find that the samples must be close to the support of the real data of the task at hand, and be sufficiently diverse. We validate three feedback criteria on a long-tailed dataset (ImageNet-LT) as well as a group-imbalanced dataset (NICO++). On ImageNet-LT, we achieve state-of-the-art results, with over 4 percent improvement on underrepresented classes while being twice efficient in terms of the number of generated synthetic samples. NICO++ also enjoys marked boosts of over 5 percent in worst group accuracy. With these results, our framework paves the path towards effectively leveraging state-of-the-art text-to-image models as data sources that can be queried to improve downstream applications.
Transformers for graph data are increasingly widely studied and successful in numerous learning tasks. Graph inductive biases are crucial for Graph Transformers, and previous works incorporate them using message-passing modules and/or positional encodings. However, Graph Transformers that use message-passing inherit known issues of message-passing, and differ significantly from Transformers used in other domains, thus making transfer of research advances more difficult. On the other hand, Graph Transformers without message-passing often perform poorly on smaller datasets, where inductive biases are more crucial. To bridge this gap, we propose the Graph Inductive bias Transformer (GRIT) -- a new Graph Transformer that incorporates graph inductive biases without using message passing. GRIT is based on several architectural changes that are each theoretically and empirically justified, including: learned relative positional encodings initialized with random walk probabilities, a flexible attention mechanism that updates node and node-pair representations, and injection of degree information in each layer. We prove that GRIT is expressive -- it can express shortest path distances and various graph propagation matrices. GRIT achieves state-of-the-art empirical performance across a variety of graph datasets, thus showing the power that Graph Transformers without message-passing can deliver.
* Published as a conference paper at ICML 2023; 17 pages
Contrastive learning has emerged as an efficient framework to learn multimodal representations. CLIP, a seminal work in this area, achieved impressive results by training on paired image-text data using the contrastive loss. Recent work claims improvements over CLIP using additional non-contrastive losses inspired from self-supervised learning. However, it is sometimes hard to disentangle the contribution of these additional losses from other implementation details, e.g., data augmentation or regularization techniques, used to train the model. To shed light on this matter, in this paper, we first propose, implement and evaluate several baselines obtained by combining contrastive learning with recent advances in self-supervised learning. In particular, we use the loss functions that were proven successful for visual self-supervised learning to align image and text modalities. We find that these baselines outperform a basic implementation of CLIP. However, when a stronger training recipe is employed, the advantage disappears. Indeed, we find that a simple CLIP baseline can also be improved substantially, up to a 25% relative improvement on downstream zero-shot tasks, by using well-known training techniques that are popular in other subfields. Moreover, we discover that it is enough to apply image and text augmentations to make up for most of the improvement attained by prior works. With our improved training recipe for CLIP, we obtain state-of-the-art performance on four standard datasets, and consistently outperform prior work (up to +4% on the largest dataset), while being substantially simpler.
Recent advances in conditional generative image models have enabled impressive results. On the one hand, text-based conditional models have achieved remarkable generation quality, by leveraging large-scale datasets of image-text pairs. To enable fine-grained controllability, however, text-based models require long prompts, whose details may be ignored by the model. On the other hand, layout-based conditional models have also witnessed significant advances. These models rely on bounding boxes or segmentation maps for precise spatial conditioning in combination with coarse semantic labels. The semantic labels, however, cannot be used to express detailed appearance characteristics. In this paper, we approach fine-grained scene controllability through image collages which allow a rich visual description of the desired scene as well as the appearance and location of the objects therein, without the need of class nor attribute labels. We introduce "mixing and matching scenes" (M&Ms), an approach that consists of an adversarially trained generative image model which is conditioned on appearance features and spatial positions of the different elements in a collage, and integrates these into a coherent image. We train our model on the OpenImages (OI) dataset and evaluate it on collages derived from OI and MS-COCO datasets. Our experiments on the OI dataset show that M&Ms outperforms baselines in terms of fine-grained scene controllability while being very competitive in terms of image quality and sample diversity. On the MS-COCO dataset, we highlight the generalization ability of our model by outperforming DALL-E in terms of the zero-shot FID metric, despite using two magnitudes fewer parameters and data. Collage based generative models have the potential to advance content creation in an efficient and effective way as they are intuitive to use and yield high quality generations.
Data augmentation has become a crucial component to train state-of-the-art visual representation models. However, handcrafting combinations of transformations that lead to improved performances is a laborious task, which can result in visually unrealistic samples. To overcome these limitations, recent works have explored the use of generative models as learnable data augmentation tools, showing promising results in narrow application domains, e.g., few-shot learning and low-data medical imaging. In this paper, we introduce a data augmentation module, called DA_IC-GAN, which leverages instance-conditioned GAN generations and can be used off-the-shelf in conjunction with most state-of-the-art training recipes. We showcase the benefits of DA_IC-GAN by plugging it out-of-the-box into the supervised training of ResNets and DeiT models on the ImageNet dataset, and achieving accuracy boosts up to between 1%p and 2%p with the highest capacity models. Moreover, the learnt representations are shown to be more robust than the baselines when transferred to a handful of out-of-distribution datasets, and exhibit increased invariance to variations of instance and viewpoints. We additionally couple DA_IC-GAN with a self-supervised training recipe and show that we can also achieve an improvement of 1%p in accuracy in some settings. With this work, we strengthen the evidence on the potential of learnable data augmentations to improve visual representation learning, paving the road towards non-handcrafted augmentations in model training.
Recipe personalization through ingredient substitution has the potential to help people meet their dietary needs and preferences, avoid potential allergens, and ease culinary exploration in everyone's kitchen. To address ingredient substitution, we build a benchmark, composed of a dataset of substitution pairs with standardized splits, evaluation metrics, and baselines. We further introduce Graph-based Ingredient Substitution Module (GISMo), a novel model that leverages the context of a recipe as well as generic ingredient relational information encoded within a graph to rank plausible substitutions. We show through comprehensive experimental validation that GISMo surpasses the best performing baseline by a large margin in terms of mean reciprocal rank. Finally, we highlight the benefits of GISMo by integrating it in an improved image-to-recipe generation pipeline, enabling recipe personalization through user intervention. Quantitative and qualitative results show the efficacy of our proposed system, paving the road towards truly personalized cooking and tasting experiences.
Drug dosing is an important application of AI, which can be formulated as a Reinforcement Learning (RL) problem. In this paper, we identify two major challenges of using RL for drug dosing: delayed and prolonged effects of administering medications, which break the Markov assumption of the RL framework. We focus on prolongedness and define PAE-POMDP (Prolonged Action Effect-Partially Observable Markov Decision Process), a subclass of POMDPs in which the Markov assumption does not hold specifically due to prolonged effects of actions. Motivated by the pharmacology literature, we propose a simple and effective approach to converting drug dosing PAE-POMDPs into MDPs, enabling the use of the existing RL algorithms to solve such problems. We validate the proposed approach on a toy task, and a challenging glucose control task, for which we devise a clinically-inspired reward function. Our results demonstrate that: (1) the proposed method to restore the Markov assumption leads to significant improvements over a vanilla baseline; (2) the approach is competitive with recurrent policies which may inherently capture the prolonged effect of actions; (3) it is remarkably more time and memory efficient than the recurrent baseline and hence more suitable for real-time dosing control systems; and (4) it exhibits favorable qualitative behavior in our policy analysis.