Lip reading is used to understand or interpret speech without hearing it, a technique especially mastered by people with hearing difficulties. The ability to lip read enables a person with a hearing impairment to communicate with others and to engage in social activities, which otherwise would be difficult. Recent advances in the fields of computer vision, pattern recognition, and signal processing has led to a growing interest in automating this challenging task of lip reading. Indeed, automating the human ability to lip read, a process referred to as visual speech recognition (VSR) (or sometimes speech reading), could open the door for other novel related applications. VSR has received a great deal of attention in the last decade for its potential use in applications such as human-computer interaction (HCI), audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR), speaker recognition, talking heads, sign language recognition and video surveillance. Its main aim is to recognise spoken word(s) by using only the visual signal that is produced during speech. Hence, VSR deals with the visual domain of speech and involves image processing, artificial intelligence, object detection, pattern recognition, statistical modelling, etc.
This paper presents a brief survey on Automatic Speech Recognition and discusses the major themes and advances made in the past 60 years of research, so as to provide a technological perspective and an appreciation of the fundamental progress that has been accomplished in this important area of speech communication. After years of research and development the accuracy of automatic speech recognition remains one of the important research challenges (e.g., variations of the context, speakers, and environment).The design of Speech Recognition system requires careful attentions to the following issues: Definition of various types of speech classes, speech representation, feature extraction techniques, speech classifiers, database and performance evaluation. The problems that are existing in ASR and the various techniques to solve these problems constructed by various research workers have been presented in a chronological order. Hence authors hope that this work shall be a contribution in the area of speech recognition. The objective of this review paper is to summarize and compare some of the well known methods used in various stages of speech recognition system and identify research topic and applications which are at the forefront of this exciting and challenging field.
A key desiderata for inclusive and accessible speech recognition technology is ensuring its robust performance to children's speech. Notably, this includes the rapidly advancing neural network based end-to-end speech recognition systems. Children speech recognition is more challenging due to the larger intra-inter speaker variability in terms of acoustic and linguistic characteristics compared to adult speech. Furthermore, the lack of adequate and appropriate children speech resources adds to the challenge of designing robust end-to-end neural architectures. This study provides a critical assessment of automatic children speech recognition through an empirical study of contemporary state-of-the-art end-to-end speech recognition systems. Insights are provided on the aspects of training data requirements, adaptation on children data, and the effect of children age, utterance lengths, different architectures and loss functions for end-to-end systems and role of language models on the speech recognition performance.
Following the success of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th CHiME challenges we organize the 6th CHiME Speech Separation and Recognition Challenge (CHiME-6). The new challenge revisits the previous CHiME-5 challenge and further considers the problem of distant multi-microphone conversational speech diarization and recognition in everyday home environments. Speech material is the same as the previous CHiME-5 recordings except for accurate array synchronization. The material was elicited using a dinner party scenario with efforts taken to capture data that is representative of natural conversational speech. This paper provides a baseline description of the CHiME-6 challenge for both segmented multispeaker speech recognition (Track 1) and unsegmented multispeaker speech recognition (Track 2). Of note, Track 2 is the first challenge activity in the community to tackle an unsegmented multispeaker speech recognition scenario with a complete set of reproducible open source baselines providing speech enhancement, speaker diarization, and speech recognition modules.
Recently, the end-to-end approach has proven its efficacy in monaural multi-speaker speech recognition. However, high word error rates (WERs) still prevent these systems from being used in practical applications. On the other hand, the spatial information in multi-channel signals has proven helpful in far-field speech recognition tasks. In this work, we propose a novel neural sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) architecture, MIMO-Speech, which extends the original seq2seq to deal with multi-channel input and multi-channel output so that it can fully model multi-channel multi-speaker speech separation and recognition. MIMO-Speech is a fully neural end-to-end framework, which is optimized only via an ASR criterion. It is comprised of: 1) a monaural masking network, 2) a multi-source neural beamformer, and 3) a multi-output speech recognition model. With this processing, the input overlapped speech is directly mapped to text sequences. We further adopted a curriculum learning strategy, making the best use of the training set to improve the performance. The experiments on the spatialized wsj1-2mix corpus show that our model can achieve more than 60% WER reduction compared to the single-channel system with high quality enhanced signals (SI-SDR = 23.1 dB) obtained by the above separation function.
We describe a method to jointly pre-train speech and text in an encoder-decoder modeling framework for speech translation and recognition. The proposed method incorporates four self-supervised and supervised subtasks for cross modality learning. A self-supervised speech subtask leverages unlabelled speech data, and a (self-)supervised text to text subtask makes use of abundant text training data. Two auxiliary supervised speech tasks are included to unify speech and text modeling space. Our contribution lies in integrating linguistic information from the text corpus into the speech pre-training. Detailed analysis reveals learning interference among subtasks. Two pre-training configurations for speech translation and recognition, respectively, are presented to alleviate subtask interference. Our experiments show the proposed method can effectively fuse speech and text information into one model. It achieves between 1.7 and 2.3 BLEU improvement above the state of the art on the MuST-C speech translation dataset and comparable WERs to wav2vec 2.0 on the Librispeech speech recognition task.
The acoustic and linguistic features of preschool speech are investigated in this study to design an automated speech recognition (ASR) system. Acoustic fluctuation has been highlighted as a significant barrier to developing high-performance ASR applications for youngsters. Because of the epidemic, preschool speech assessment should be conducted online. Accordingly, there is a need for an automatic speech recognition system. We were confronted with new challenges in our cognitive system, including converting meaningless words from speech to text and recognizing word sequence. After testing and experimenting with several models we obtained a 3.1\% phoneme error rate in Persian. Wav2Vec 2.0 is a paradigm that could be used to build a robust end-to-end speech recognition system.
A Pascal challenge entitled monaural multi-talker speech recognition was developed, targeting the problem of robust automatic speech recognition against speech like noises which significantly degrades the performance of automatic speech recognition systems. In this challenge, two competing speakers say a simple command simultaneously and the objective is to recognize speech of the target speaker. Surprisingly during the challenge, a team from IBM research, could achieve a performance better than human listeners on this task. The proposed method of the IBM team, consist of an intermediate speech separation and then a single-talker speech recognition. This paper reconsiders the task of this challenge based on gain adapted factorial speech processing models. It develops a joint-token passing algorithm for direct utterance decoding of both target and masker speakers, simultaneously. Comparing it to the challenge winner, it uses maximum uncertainty during the decoding which cannot be used in the past two-phased method. It provides detailed derivation of inference on these models based on general inference procedures of probabilistic graphical models. As another improvement, it uses deep neural networks for joint-speaker identification and gain estimation which makes these two steps easier than before producing competitive results for these steps. The proposed method of this work outperforms past super-human results and even the results were achieved recently by Microsoft research, using deep neural networks. It achieved 5.5% absolute task performance improvement compared to the first super-human system and 2.7% absolute task performance improvement compared to its recent competitor.
We investigate multi-speaker speech recognition from ultrasound images of the tongue and video images of the lips. We train our systems on imaging data from modal speech, and evaluate on matched test sets of two speaking modes: silent and modal speech. We observe that silent speech recognition from imaging data underperforms compared to modal speech recognition, likely due to a speaking-mode mismatch between training and testing. We improve silent speech recognition performance using techniques that address the domain mismatch, such as fMLLR and unsupervised model adaptation. We also analyse the properties of silent and modal speech in terms of utterance duration and the size of the articulatory space. To estimate the articulatory space, we compute the convex hull of tongue splines, extracted from ultrasound tongue images. Overall, we observe that the duration of silent speech is longer than that of modal speech, and that silent speech covers a smaller articulatory space than modal speech. Although these two properties are statistically significant across speaking modes, they do not directly correlate with word error rates from speech recognition.