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"magic": models, code, and papers

Magic: the Gathering is as Hard as Arithmetic

Mar 11, 2020
Stella Biderman

Magic: the Gathering is a popular and famously complicated card game about magical combat. Recently, several authors including Chatterjee and Ibsen-Jensen (2016) and Churchill, Biderman, and Herrick (2019) have investigated the computational complexity of playing Magic optimally. In this paper we show that the ``mate-in-$n$'' problem for Magic is $\Delta^0_n$-hard and that optimal play in two-player Magic is non-arithmetic in general. These results apply to how real Magic is played, can be achieved using standard-size tournament legal decks, and do not rely on stochasticity or hidden information. Our paper builds upon the construction that Churchill, Biderman, and Herrick (2019) used to show that this problem was at least as hard as the halting problem.

* pre-print, currently under review 

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The MAGICAL Benchmark for Robust Imitation

Nov 01, 2020
Sam Toyer, Rohin Shah, Andrew Critch, Stuart Russell

Imitation Learning (IL) algorithms are typically evaluated in the same environment that was used to create demonstrations. This rewards precise reproduction of demonstrations in one particular environment, but provides little information about how robustly an algorithm can generalise the demonstrator's intent to substantially different deployment settings. This paper presents the MAGICAL benchmark suite, which permits systematic evaluation of generalisation by quantifying robustness to different kinds of distribution shift that an IL algorithm is likely to encounter in practice. Using the MAGICAL suite, we confirm that existing IL algorithms overfit significantly to the context in which demonstrations are provided. We also show that standard methods for reducing overfitting are effective at creating narrow perceptual invariances, but are not sufficient to enable transfer to contexts that require substantially different behaviour, which suggests that new approaches will be needed in order to robustly generalise demonstrator intent. Code and data for the MAGICAL suite is available at https://github.com/qxcv/magical/.

* NeurIPS 2020 conference paper (poster) 

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Playing magic tricks to deep neural networks untangles human deception

Aug 20, 2019
Regina Zaghi-Lara, Miguel Ángel Gea, Jordi Camí, Luis M. Martínez, Alex Gomez-Marin

Magic is the art of producing in the spectator an illusion of impossibility. Although the scientific study of magic is in its infancy, the advent of recent tracking algorithms based on deep learning allow now to quantify the skills of the magician in naturalistic conditions at unprecedented resolution and robustness. In this study, we deconstructed stage magic into purely motor maneuvers and trained an artificial neural network (DeepLabCut) to follow coins as a professional magician made them appear and disappear in a series of tricks. Rather than using AI as a mere tracking tool, we conceived it as an "artificial spectator". When the coins were not visible, the algorithm was trained to infer their location as a human spectator would (i.e. in the left fist). This created situations where the human was fooled while AI (as seen by a human) was not, and vice versa. Magic from the perspective of the machine reveals our own cognitive biases.


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Formal Methods with a Touch of Magic

May 25, 2020
Parand Alizadeh Alamdari, Guy Avni, Thomas A. Henzinger, Anna Lukina

Machine learning and formal methods have complimentary benefits and drawbacks. In this work, we address the controller-design problem with a combination of techniques from both fields. The use of black-box neural networks in deep reinforcement learning (deep RL) poses a challenge for such a combination. Instead of reasoning formally about the output of deep RL, which we call the {\em wizard}, we extract from it a decision-tree based model, which we refer to as the {\em magic book}. Using the extracted model as an intermediary, we are able to handle problems that are infeasible for either deep RL or formal methods by themselves. First, we suggest, for the first time, combining a magic book in a synthesis procedure. We synthesize a stand-alone correct-by-design controller that enjoys the favorable performance of RL. Second, we incorporate a magic book in a bounded model checking (BMC) procedure. BMC allows us to find numerous traces of the plant under the control of the wizard, which a user can use to increase the trustworthiness of the wizard and direct further training.


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Enhancing magic sets with an application to ontological reasoning

Jul 19, 2019
Mario Alviano, Nicola Leone, Pierfrancesco Veltri, Jessica Zangari

Magic sets are a Datalog to Datalog rewriting technique to optimize query answering. The rewritten program focuses on a portion of the stable model(s) of the input program which is sufficient to answer the given query. However, the rewriting may introduce new recursive definitions, which can involve even negation and aggregations, and may slow down program evaluation. This paper enhances the magic set technique by preventing the creation of (new) recursive definitions in the rewritten program. It turns out that the new version of magic sets is closed for Datalog programs with stratified negation and aggregations, which is very convenient to obtain efficient computation of the stable model of the rewritten program. Moreover, the rewritten program is further optimized by the elimination of subsumed rules and by the efficient handling of the cases where binding propagation is lost. The research was stimulated by a challenge on the exploitation of Datalog/\textsc{dlv} for efficient reasoning on large ontologies. All proposed techniques have been hence implemented in the \textsc{dlv} system, and tested for ontological reasoning, confirming their effectiveness. Under consideration for publication in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming.

* Paper presented at the 35th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2019), Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA, 20-25 September 2019, 16 pages 

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MAGIC: Learning Macro-Actions for Online POMDP Planning using Generator-Critic

Nov 07, 2020
Yiyuan Lee, Panpan Cai, David Hsu

When robots operate in the real-world, they need to handle uncertainties in sensing, acting, and the environment. Many tasks also require reasoning about long-term consequences of robot decisions. The partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) offers a principled approach for planning under uncertainty. However, its computational complexity grows exponentially with the planning horizon. We propose to use temporally-extended macro-actions to cut down the effective planning horizon and thus the exponential factor of the complexity. We propose Macro-Action Generator-Critic (MAGIC), an algorithm that learns a macro-action generator from data, and uses the learned macro-actions to perform long-horizon planning. MAGIC learns the generator using experience provided by an online planner, and in-turn conditions the planner using the generated macro-actions. We evaluate MAGIC on several long-term planning tasks, showing that it significantly outperforms planning using primitive actions, hand-crafted macro-actions, as well as naive reinforcement learning in both simulation and on a real robot.

* 6 pages (+ 1 page references). 7 figures. Submitted to International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2021 

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Magic for Filter Optimization in Dynamic Bottom-up Processing

Apr 29, 1996
Guido Minnen

Off-line compilation of logic grammars using Magic allows an incorporation of filtering into the logic underlying the grammar. The explicit definite clause characterization of filtering resulting from Magic compilation allows processor independent and logically clean optimizations of dynamic bottom-up processing with respect to goal-directedness. Two filter optimizations based on the program transformation technique of Unfolding are discussed which are of practical and theoretical interest.

* Proceedings of ACL 96, Santa Cruz, USA, June 23-28 
* 8 pages LaTeX (uses aclap.sty) 

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A Machine Learning Imaging Core using Separable FIR-IIR Filters

Jan 02, 2020
Masayoshi Asama, Leo F. Isikdogan, Sushma Rao, Bhavin V. Nayak, Gilad Michael

We propose fixed-function neural network hardware that is designed to perform pixel-to-pixel image transformations in a highly efficient way. We use a fully trainable, fixed-topology neural network to build a model that can perform a wide variety of image processing tasks. Our model uses compressed skip lines and hybrid FIR-IIR blocks to reduce the latency and hardware footprint. Our proposed Machine Learning Imaging Core, dubbed MagIC, uses a silicon area of ~3mm^2 (in TSMC 16nm), which is orders of magnitude smaller than a comparable pixel-wise dense prediction model. MagIC requires no DDR bandwidth, no SRAM, and practically no external memory. Each MagIC core consumes 56mW (215 mW max power) at 500MHz and achieves an energy-efficient throughput of 23TOPS/W/mm^2. MagIC can be used as a multi-purpose image processing block in an imaging pipeline, approximating compute-heavy image processing applications, such as image deblurring, denoising, and colorization, within the power and silicon area limits of mobile devices.


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MAGIC: Multi-scale Heterogeneity Analysis and Clustering for Brain Diseases

Jul 10, 2020
Junhao Wen, Erdem Varol, Ganesh Chand, Aristeidis Sotiras, Christos Davatzikos

There is a growing amount of clinical, anatomical and functional evidence for the heterogeneous presentation of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimers Disease (AD). Elucidating distinct subtypes of diseases allows a better understanding of neuropathogenesis and enables the possibility of developing targeted treatment programs. Recent semi-supervised clustering techniques have provided a data-driven way to understand disease heterogeneity. However, existing methods do not take into account that subtypes of the disease might present themselves at different spatial scales across the brain. Here, we introduce a novel method, MAGIC, to uncover disease heterogeneity by leveraging multi-scale clustering. We first extract multi-scale patterns of structural covariance (PSCs) followed by a semi-supervised clustering with double cyclic block-wise optimization across different scales of PSCs. We validate MAGIC using simulated heterogeneous neuroanatomical data and demonstrate its clinical potential by exploring the heterogeneity of AD using T1 MRI scans of 228 cognitively normal (CN) and 191 patients. Our results indicate two main subtypes of AD with distinct atrophy patterns that consist of both fine-scale atrophy in the hippocampus as well as large-scale atrophy in cortical regions. The evidence for the heterogeneity is further corroborated by the clinical evaluation of two subtypes, which indicates that there is a subpopulation of AD patients that tend to be younger and decline faster in cognitive performance relative to the other subpopulation, which tends to be older and maintains a relatively steady decline in cognitive abilities.

* 11 pages, 3 figures, accepted by MICCAI2020 

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How Insight Emerges in a Distributed, Content-addressable Memory

Jun 18, 2011
Liane Gabora, Apara Ranjan

We begin this chapter with the bold claim that it provides a neuroscientific explanation of the magic of creativity. Creativity presents a formidable challenge for neuroscience. Neuroscience generally involves studying what happens in the brain when someone engages in a task that involves responding to a stimulus, or retrieving information from memory and using it the right way, or at the right time. If the relevant information is not already encoded in memory, the task generally requires that the individual make systematic use of information that is encoded in memory. But creativity is different. It paradoxically involves studying how someone pulls out of their brain something that was never put into it! Moreover, it must be something both new and useful, or appropriate to the task at hand. The ability to pull out of memory something new and appropriate that was never stored there in the first place is what we refer to as the magic of creativity. Even if we are so fortunate as to determine which areas of the brain are active and how these areas interact during creative thought, we will not have an answer to the question of how the brain comes up with solutions and artworks that are new and appropriate. On the other hand, since the representational capacity of neurons emerges at a level that is higher than that of the individual neurons themselves, the inner workings of neurons is too low a level to explain the magic of creativity. Thus we look to a level that is midway between gross brain regions and neurons. Since creativity generally involves combining concepts from different domains, or seeing old ideas from new perspectives, we focus our efforts on the neural mechanisms underlying the representation of concepts and ideas. Thus we ask questions about the brain at the level that accounts for its representational capacity, i.e. at the level of distributed aggregates of neurons.

* Gabora, L. & Ranjan, A. (2012). How insight emerges in a distributed, content-addressable memory. In A. Bristol, O. Vartanian, & J. Kaufman (Eds.) The Neuroscience of Creativity. New York: Oxford University Press 
* in press; 17 pages; 2 figures 

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A third level trigger programmable on FPGA for the gamma/hadron separation in a Cherenkov telescope using pseudo-Zernike moments and the SVM classifier

Feb 24, 2006
Marco Frailis, Oriana Mansutti, Praveen Boinee, Giuseppe Cabras, Alessandro De Angelis, Barbara De Lotto, Alberto Forti, Mauro Dell'Orso, Riccardo Paoletti, Angelo Scribano, Nicola Turini, Mose' Mariotti, Luigi Peruzzo, Antonio Saggion

We studied the application of the Pseudo-Zernike features as image parameters (instead of the Hillas parameters) for the discrimination between the images produced by atmospheric electromagnetic showers caused by gamma-rays and the ones produced by atmospheric electromagnetic showers caused by hadrons in the MAGIC Experiment. We used a Support Vector Machine as classification algorithm with the computed Pseudo-Zernike features as classification parameters. We implemented on a FPGA board a kernel function of the SVM and the Pseudo-Zernike features to build a third level trigger for the gamma-hadron separation task of the MAGIC Experiment.


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Goal-Driven Query Answering for Existential Rules with Equality

Nov 20, 2017
Michael Benedikt, Boris Motik, Efthymia Tsamoura

Inspired by the magic sets for Datalog, we present a novel goal-driven approach for answering queries over terminating existential rules with equality (aka TGDs and EGDs). Our technique improves the performance of query answering by pruning the consequences that are not relevant for the query. This is challenging in our setting because equalities can potentially affect all predicates in a dataset. We address this problem by combining the existing singularization technique with two new ingredients: an algorithm for identifying the rules relevant to a query and a new magic sets algorithm. We show empirically that our technique can significantly improve the performance of query answering, and that it can mean the difference between answering a query in a few seconds or not being able to process the query at all.


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On the statistical complexity of quantum circuits

Jan 15, 2021
Kaifeng Bu, Dax Enshan Koh, Lu Li, Qingxian Luo, Yaobo Zhang

In theoretical machine learning, the statistical complexity is a notion that measures the richness of a hypothesis space. In this work, we apply a particular measure of statistical complexity, namely the Rademacher complexity, to the quantum circuit model in quantum computation and study how the statistical complexity depends on various quantum circuit parameters. In particular, we investigate the dependence of the statistical complexity on the resources, depth, width, and the number of input and output registers of a quantum circuit. To study how the statistical complexity scales with resources in the circuit, we introduce a resource measure of magic based on the $(p,q)$ group norm, which quantifies the amount of magic in the quantum channels associated with the circuit. These dependencies are investigated in the following two settings: (i) where the entire quantum circuit is treated as a single quantum channel, and (ii) where each layer of the quantum circuit is treated as a separate quantum channel. The bounds we obtain can be used to constrain the capacity of quantum neural networks in terms of their depths and widths as well as the resources in the network.

* 6+19 pages 

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Ontology of Card Sleights

Mar 20, 2019
Aaron Sterling

We present a machine-readable movement writing for sleight-of-hand moves with cards -- a "Labanotation of card magic." This scheme of movement writing contains 440 categories of motion, and appears to taxonomize all card sleights that have appeared in over 1500 publications. The movement writing is axiomatized in $\mathcal{SROIQ}$(D) Description Logic, and collected formally as an Ontology of Card Sleights, a computational ontology that extends the Basic Formal Ontology and the Information Artifact Ontology. The Ontology of Card Sleights is implemented in OWL DL, a Description Logic fragment of the Web Ontology Language. While ontologies have historically been used to classify at a less granular level, the algorithmic nature of card tricks allows us to transcribe a performer's actions step by step. We conclude by discussing design criteria we have used to ensure the ontology can be accessed and modified with a simple click-and-drag interface. This may allow database searches and performance transcriptions by users with card magic knowledge, but no ontology background.

* IEEE 14th International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC), February 2019, pp. 263-270 
* 8 pages. Preprint. Final version appeared in ICSC 2019. Copyright of final version is held by IEEE 

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Mechanisms of Artistic Creativity in Deep Learning Neural Networks

Jun 30, 2019
Lonce Wyse

The generative capabilities of deep learning neural networks (DNNs) have been attracting increasing attention for both the remarkable artifacts they produce, but also because of the vast conceptual difference between how they are programmed and what they do. DNNs are 'black boxes' where high-level behavior is not explicitly programmed, but emerges from the complex interactions of thousands or millions of simple computational elements. Their behavior is often described in anthropomorphic terms that can be misleading, seem magical, or stoke fears of an imminent singularity in which machines become 'more' than human. In this paper, we examine 5 distinct behavioral characteristics associated with creativity, and provide an example of a mechanisms from generative deep learning architectures that give rise to each these characteristics. All 5 emerge from machinery built for purposes other than the creative characteristics they exhibit, mostly classification. These mechanisms of creative generative capabilities thus demonstrate a deep kinship to computational perceptual processes. By understanding how these different behaviors arise, we hope to on one hand take the magic out of anthropomorphic descriptions, but on the other, to build a deeper appreciation of machinic forms of creativity on their own terms that will allow us to nurture their further development.

* 8 pages, International Conference on Computational Creativity, Charlotte, NC, USA. June, 2019 

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Extending Weakly-Sticky Datalog+/-: Query-Answering Tractability and Optimizations

Jul 10, 2016
Mostafa Milani, Leopoldo Bertossi

Weakly-sticky (WS) Datalog+/- is an expressive member of the family of Datalog+/- programs that is based on the syntactic notions of stickiness and weak-acyclicity. Query answering over the WS programs has been investigated, but there is still much work to do on the design and implementation of practical query answering (QA) algorithms and their optimizations. Here, we study sticky and WS programs from the point of view of the behavior of the chase procedure, extending the stickiness property of the chase to that of generalized stickiness of the chase (gsch-property). With this property we specify the semantic class of GSCh programs, which includes sticky and WS programs, and other syntactic subclasses that we identify. In particular, we introduce joint-weakly-sticky (JWS) programs, that include WS programs. We also propose a bottom-up QA algorithm for a range of subclasses of GSCh. The algorithm runs in polynomial time (in data) for JWS programs. Unlike the WS class, JWS is closed under a general magic-sets rewriting procedure for the optimization of programs with existential rules. We apply the magic-sets rewriting in combination with the proposed QA algorithm for the optimization of QA over JWS programs.

* Extended version of RR'16 paper 

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NeuralMagicEye: Learning to See and Understand the Scene Behind an Autostereogram

Dec 31, 2020
Zhengxia Zou, Tianyang Shi, Yi Yuan, Zhenwei Shi

An autostereogram, a.k.a. magic eye image, is a single-image stereogram that can create visual illusions of 3D scenes from 2D textures. This paper studies an interesting question that whether a deep CNN can be trained to recover the depth behind an autostereogram and understand its content. The key to the autostereogram magic lies in the stereopsis - to solve such a problem, a model has to learn to discover and estimate disparity from the quasi-periodic textures. We show that deep CNNs embedded with disparity convolution, a novel convolutional layer proposed in this paper that simulates stereopsis and encodes disparity, can nicely solve such a problem after being sufficiently trained on a large 3D object dataset in a self-supervised fashion. We refer to our method as ``NeuralMagicEye''. Experiments show that our method can accurately recover the depth behind autostereograms with rich details and gradient smoothness. Experiments also show the completely different working mechanisms for autostereogram perception between neural networks and human eyes. We hope this research can help people with visual impairments and those who have trouble viewing autostereograms. Our code is available at \url{https://jiupinjia.github.io/neuralmagiceye/}.


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Overlapping Community Detection in Temporal Text Networks

Jan 13, 2021
Shuhan Yan, Yuting Jia, Xinbing Wang

Analyzing the groups in the network based on same attributes, functions or connections between nodes is a way to understand network information. The task of discovering a series of node groups is called community detection. Generally, two types of information can be utilized to fulfill this task, i.e., the link structures and the node attributes. The temporal text network is a special kind of network that contains both sources of information. Typical representatives include online blog networks, the World Wide Web (WWW) and academic citation networks. In this paper, we study the problem of overlapping community detection in temporal text network. By examining 32 large temporal text networks, we find a lot of edges connecting two nodes with no common community and discover that nodes in the same community share similar textual contents. This scenario cannot be quantitatively modeled by practically all existing community detection methods. Motivated by these empirical observations, we propose MAGIC (Model Affiliation Graph with Interacting Communities), a generative model which captures community interactions and considers the information from both link structures and node attributes. Our experiments on 3 types of datasets show that MAGIC achieves large improvements over 4 state-of-the-art methods in terms of 4 widely-used metrics.

* 13 pages, 7 figures 

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Leveraging Domain Knowledge using Machine Learning for Image Compression in Internet-of-Things

Sep 14, 2020
Prabuddha Chakraborty, Jonathan Cruz, Swarup Bhunia

The emergent ecosystems of intelligent edge devices in diverse Internet of Things (IoT) applications, from automatic surveillance to precision agriculture, increasingly rely on recording and processing variety of image data. Due to resource constraints, e.g., energy and communication bandwidth requirements, these applications require compressing the recorded images before transmission. For these applications, image compression commonly requires: (1) maintaining features for coarse-grain pattern recognition instead of the high-level details for human perception due to machine-to-machine communications; (2) high compression ratio that leads to improved energy and transmission efficiency; (3) large dynamic range of compression and an easy trade-off between compression factor and quality of reconstruction to accommodate a wide diversity of IoT applications as well as their time-varying energy/performance needs. To address these requirements, we propose, MAGIC, a novel machine learning (ML) guided image compression framework that judiciously sacrifices visual quality to achieve much higher compression when compared to traditional techniques, while maintaining accuracy for coarse-grained vision tasks. The central idea is to capture application-specific domain knowledge and efficiently utilize it in achieving high compression. We demonstrate that the MAGIC framework is configurable across a wide range of compression/quality and is capable of compressing beyond the standard quality factor limits of both JPEG 2000 and WebP. We perform experiments on representative IoT applications using two vision datasets and show up to 42.65x compression at similar accuracy with respect to the source. We highlight low variance in compression rate across images using our technique as compared to JPEG 2000 and WebP.


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