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"autonomous cars": models, code, and papers

A Survey on Safety-Critical Scenario Generation for Autonomous Driving -- A Methodological Perspective

Feb 07, 2022
Wenhao Ding, Chejian Xu, Haohong Lin, Bo Li, Ding Zhao

Autonomous driving systems have witnessed a great development during the past years thanks to the advance in sensing and decision-making. One critical obstacle for their massive deployment in the real world is the evaluation of safety. Most existing driving systems are still trained and evaluated on naturalistic scenarios that account for the vast majority of daily life or heuristically-generated adversarial ones. However, the large population of cars requires an extremely low collision rate, indicating safety-critical scenarios collected in the real world would be rare. Thus, methods to artificially generate artificial scenarios becomes critical to manage the risk and reduce the cost. In this survey, we focus on the algorithms of safety-critical scenario generation. We firstly provide a comprehensive taxonomy of existing algorithms by dividing them into three categories: data-driven generation, adversarial generation, and knowledge-based generation. Then, we discuss useful tools for scenario generation, including simulation platforms and packages. Finally, we extend our discussion to five main challenges of current works -- fidelity, efficiency, diversity, transferability, controllability -- and the research opportunities lighted up by these challenges.

* 16 pages, 4 figures 
  

Pedestrian Models for Autonomous Driving Part I: low level models, from sensing to tracking

Feb 26, 2020
Fanta Camara, Nicola Bellotto, Serhan Cosar, Dimitris Nathanael, Matthias Althoff, Jingyuan Wu, Johannes Ruenz, André Dietrich, Charles W. Fox

Autonomous vehicles (AVs) must share space with human pedestrians, both in on-road cases such as cars at pedestrian crossings and off-road cases such as delivery vehicles navigating through crowds on high-streets. Unlike static and kinematic obstacles, pedestrians are active agents with complex, interactive motions. Planning AV actions in the presence of pedestrians thus requires modelling of their probable future behaviour as well as detection and tracking which enable such modelling. This narrative review article is Part I of a pair which together survey the current technology stack involved in this process, organising recent research into a hierarchical taxonomy ranging from low level image detection to high-level psychology models, from the perspective of an AV designer. This self-contained Part I covers the lower levels of this stack, from sensing, through detection and recognition, up to tracking of pedestrians. Technologies at these levels are found to be mature and available as foundations for use in higher level systems such as behaviour modelling, prediction and interaction control.

* Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 
  

Efficient Online Transfer Learning for 3D Object Classification in Autonomous Driving

May 04, 2021
Rui Yang, Zhi Yan, Tao Yang, Yassine Ruichek

Autonomous driving has achieved rapid development over the last few decades, including the machine perception as an important issue of it. Although object detection based on conventional cameras has achieved remarkable results in 2D/3D, non-visual sensors such as 3D LiDAR still have incomparable advantages in the accuracy of object position detection. However, the challenge also exists with the difficulty in properly interpreting point cloud generated by LiDAR. This paper presents a multi-modal-based online learning system for 3D LiDAR-based object classification in urban environments, including cars, cyclists and pedestrians. The proposed system aims to effectively transfer the mature detection capabilities based on visual sensors to the new model learning based on non-visual sensors through a multi-target tracker (i.e. using one sensor to train another). In particular, it integrates the Online Random Forests (ORF) \cite{saffari2009line} method, which inherently has the abilities of fast and multi-class learning. Through experiments, we show that our system is capable of learning a high-performance model for LiDAR-based 3D object classification on-the-fly, which is especially suitable for robotics in-situ deployment while responding to the widespread challenge of insufficient detector generalization capabilities.

* 8 pages, 7 figures, submitted to IEEE ITSC 2021 
  

Pseudo-LiDAR++: Accurate Depth for 3D Object Detection in Autonomous Driving

Jun 14, 2019
Yurong You, Yan Wang, Wei-Lun Chao, Divyansh Garg, Geoff Pleiss, Bharath Hariharan, Mark Campbell, Kilian Q. Weinberger

Detecting objects such as cars and pedestrians in 3D plays an indispensable role in autonomous driving. Existing approaches largely rely on expensive LiDAR sensors for accurate depth information. While recently pseudo-LiDAR has been introduced as a promising alternative, at a much lower cost based solely on stereo images, there is still a notable performance gap. In this paper we provide substantial advances to the pseudo-LiDAR framework through improvements in stereo depth estimation. Concretely, we adapt the stereo network architecture and loss function to be more aligned with accurate depth estimation of far away objects (currently the primary weakness of pseudo-LiDAR). Further, we explore the idea to leverage cheaper but extremely sparse LiDAR sensors, which alone provide insufficient information for 3D detection, to de-bias our depth estimation. We propose a depth-propagation algorithm, guided by the initial depth estimates, to diffuse these few exact measurements across the entire depth map. We show on the KITTI object detection benchmark that our combined approach yields substantial improvements in depth estimation and stereo-based 3D object detection --- outperforming the previous state-of-the-art detection accuracy for far-away objects by 40%. Our code will be publicly available at https://github.com/mileyan/Pseudo_Lidar_V2.

  

Towards Autonomous Reinforcement Learning: Automatic Setting of Hyper-parameters using Bayesian Optimization

May 12, 2018
Juan Cruz Barsce, Jorge A. Palombarini, Ernesto C. Martínez

With the increase of machine learning usage by industries and scientific communities in a variety of tasks such as text mining, image recognition and self-driving cars, automatic setting of hyper-parameter in learning algorithms is a key factor for achieving satisfactory performance regardless of user expertise in the inner workings of the techniques and methodologies. In particular, for a reinforcement learning algorithm, the efficiency of an agent learning a control policy in an uncertain environment is heavily dependent on the hyper-parameters used to balance exploration with exploitation. In this work, an autonomous learning framework that integrates Bayesian optimization with Gaussian process regression to optimize the hyper-parameters of a reinforcement learning algorithm, is proposed. Also, a bandits-based approach to achieve a balance between computational costs and decreasing uncertainty about the Q-values, is presented. A gridworld example is used to highlight how hyper-parameter configurations of a learning algorithm (SARSA) are iteratively improved based on two performance functions.

* Paper submitted to CLEI Electronic Journal. This is an extended version of the conference paper presented at Latin American Computer Conference (CLEI), 2017 
  

A Novel Traffic Simulation Framework for Testing Autonomous Vehicles Using SUMO and CARLA

Oct 14, 2021
Pei Li, Arpan Kusari, David J. LeBlanc

Traffic simulation is an efficient and cost-effective way to test Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) in a complex and dynamic environment. Numerous studies have been conducted for AV evaluation using traffic simulation over the past decades. However, the current simulation environments fall behind on two fronts -- the background vehicles (BVs) fail to simulate naturalistic driving behavior and the existing environments do not test the entire pipeline in a modular fashion. This study aims to propose a simulation framework that creates a complex and naturalistic traffic environment. Specifically, we combine a modified version of the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO) simulator with the Cars Learning to Act (CARLA) simulator to generate a simulation environment that could emulate the complexities of the external environment while providing realistic sensor outputs to the AV pipeline. In a past research work, we created an open-source Python package called SUMO-Gym which generates a realistic road network and naturalistic traffic through SUMO and combines that with OpenAI Gym to provide ease of use for the end user. We propose to extend our developed software by adding CARLA, which in turn will enrich the perception of the ego vehicle by providing realistic sensors outputs of the AVs surrounding environment. Using the proposed framework, AVs perception, planning, and control could be tested in a complex and realistic driving environment. The performance of the proposed framework in constructing output generation and AV evaluations are demonstrated using several case studies.

  

Neural Network Guided Evolutionary Fuzzing for Finding Traffic Violations of Autonomous Vehicles

Sep 13, 2021
Ziyuan Zhong, Gail Kaiser, Baishakhi Ray

Self-driving cars and trucks, autonomous vehicles (AVs), should not be accepted by regulatory bodies and the public until they have much higher confidence in their safety and reliability -- which can most practically and convincingly be achieved by testing. But existing testing methods are inadequate for checking the end-to-end behaviors of AV controllers against complex, real-world corner cases involving interactions with multiple independent agents such as pedestrians and human-driven vehicles. While test-driving AVs on streets and highways fails to capture many rare events, existing simulation-based testing methods mainly focus on simple scenarios and do not scale well for complex driving situations that require sophisticated awareness of the surroundings. To address these limitations, we propose a new fuzz testing technique, called AutoFuzz, which can leverage widely-used AV simulators' API grammars. to generate semantically and temporally valid complex driving scenarios (sequences of scenes). AutoFuzz is guided by a constrained Neural Network (NN) evolutionary search over the API grammar to generate scenarios seeking to find unique traffic violations. Evaluation of our prototype on one state-of-the-art learning-based controller and two rule-based controllers shows that AutoFuzz efficiently finds hundreds of realistic traffic violations resembling real-world crashes. Further, fine-tuning the learning-based controller with the traffic violations found by AutoFuzz successfully reduced the traffic violations found in the new version of the AV controller software.

  

On the interaction between Autonomous Mobility-on-Demand systems and the power network: models and coordination algorithms

Jun 27, 2018
Federico Rossi, Ramon Iglesias, Mahnoosh Alizadeh, Marco Pavone

We study the interaction between a fleet of electric, self-driving vehicles servicing on-demand transportation requests (referred to as Autonomous Mobility-on-Demand, or AMoD, system) and the electric power network. We propose a model that captures the coupling between the two systems stemming from the vehicles' charging requirements and captures time-varying customer demand and power generation costs, road congestion, battery depreciation, and power transmission and distribution constraints. We then leverage the model to jointly optimize the operation of both systems. We devise an algorithmic procedure to losslessly reduce the problem size by bundling customer requests, allowing it to be efficiently solved by off-the-shelf linear programming solvers. Next, we show that the socially optimal solution to the joint problem can be enforced as a general equilibrium, and we provide a dual decomposition algorithm that allows self-interested agents to compute the market clearing prices without sharing private information. We assess the performance of the mode by studying a hypothetical AMoD system in Dallas-Fort Worth and its impact on the Texas power network. Lack of coordination between the AMoD system and the power network can cause a 4.4% increase in the price of electricity in Dallas-Fort Worth; conversely, coordination between the AMoD system and the power network could reduce electricity expenditure compared to the case where no cars are present (despite the increased demand for electricity) and yield savings of up $147M/year. Finally, we provide a receding-horizon implementation and assess its performance with agent-based simulations. Collectively, the results of this paper provide a first-of-a-kind characterization of the interaction between electric-powered AMoD systems and the power network, and shed additional light on the economic and societal value of AMoD.

* Extended version of the paper presented at Robotics: Science and Systems XIV, in prep. for journal submission. In V3, we add a proof that the socially-optimal solution can be enforced as a general equilibrium, a privacy-preserving distributed optimization algorithm, a description of the receding-horizon implementation and additional numerical results, and proofs of all theorems 
  

Large-scale 3D point cloud representations via graph inception networks with applications to autonomous driving

Jun 26, 2019
Siheng Chen, Sufeng. Niu, Tian Lan, Baoan Liu

We present a novel graph-neural-network-based system to effectively represent large-scale 3D point clouds with the applications to autonomous driving. Many previous works studied the representations of 3D point clouds based on two approaches, voxelization, which causes discretization errors and learning, which is hard to capture huge variations in large-scale scenarios. In this work, we combine voxelization and learning: we discretize the 3D space into voxels and propose novel graph inception networks to represent 3D points in each voxel. This combination makes the system avoid discretization errors and work for large-scale scenarios. The entire system for large-scale 3D point clouds acts like the blocked discrete cosine transform for 2D images; we thus call it the point cloud neural transform (PCT). We further apply the proposed PCT to represent real-time LiDAR sweeps produced by self-driving cars and the PCT with graph inception networks significantly outperforms its competitors.

  
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