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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

Discovering Protagonist of Sentiment with Aspect Reconstructed Capsule Network

Jan 20, 2020
Chi Xu, Hao Feng, Guoxin Yu, Min Yang, Xiting Wang, Xiang Ao

Most recent existing aspect-term level sentiment analysis (ATSA) approaches combined various neural network models with delicately carved attention mechanisms built upon given aspect and context to generate refined sentence representations for better predictions. In these methods, aspect terms are always provided in both training and testing process which may degrade aspect-level analysis into sentence-level prediction. However, the annotated aspect term might be unavailable in real-world scenarios which may challenge the applicability of the existing methods. In this paper, we aim to improve ATSA by discovering the potential aspect terms of the predicted sentiment polarity when the aspect terms of a test sentence are unknown. We access this goal by proposing a capsule network based model named CAPSAR. In CAPSAR, sentiment categories are denoted by capsules and aspect term information is injected into sentiment capsules through a sentiment-aspect reconstruction procedure during the training. As a result, coherent patterns between aspects and sentimental expressions are encapsulated by these sentiment capsules. Experiments on three widely used benchmarks demonstrate these patterns have potential in exploring aspect terms from test sentence when only feeding the sentence to the model. Meanwhile, the proposed CAPSAR can clearly outperform SOTA methods in standard ATSA tasks.

* 7pages, 3figures 

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Twitter Sentiment Analysis: Lexicon Method, Machine Learning Method and Their Combination

Sep 18, 2015
Olga Kolchyna, Tharsis T. P. Souza, Philip Treleaven, Tomaso Aste

This paper covers the two approaches for sentiment analysis: i) lexicon based method; ii) machine learning method. We describe several techniques to implement these approaches and discuss how they can be adopted for sentiment classification of Twitter messages. We present a comparative study of different lexicon combinations and show that enhancing sentiment lexicons with emoticons, abbreviations and social-media slang expressions increases the accuracy of lexicon-based classification for Twitter. We discuss the importance of feature generation and feature selection processes for machine learning sentiment classification. To quantify the performance of the main sentiment analysis methods over Twitter we run these algorithms on a benchmark Twitter dataset from the SemEval-2013 competition, task 2-B. The results show that machine learning method based on SVM and Naive Bayes classifiers outperforms the lexicon method. We present a new ensemble method that uses a lexicon based sentiment score as input feature for the machine learning approach. The combined method proved to produce more precise classifications. We also show that employing a cost-sensitive classifier for highly unbalanced datasets yields an improvement of sentiment classification performance up to 7%.

* Handbook of Sentiment Analysis in Finance. Mitra, G. and Yu, X. (Eds.). (2016). ISBN 1910571571 
* 32 pages, 5 figures 

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Market Trend Prediction using Sentiment Analysis: Lessons Learned and Paths Forward

Mar 13, 2019
Andrius Mudinas, Dell Zhang, Mark Levene

Financial market forecasting is one of the most attractive practical applications of sentiment analysis. In this paper, we investigate the potential of using sentiment \emph{attitudes} (positive vs negative) and also sentiment \emph{emotions} (joy, sadness, etc.) extracted from financial news or tweets to help predict stock price movements. Our extensive experiments using the \emph{Granger-causality} test have revealed that (i) in general sentiment attitudes do not seem to Granger-cause stock price changes; and (ii) while on some specific occasions sentiment emotions do seem to Granger-cause stock price changes, the exhibited pattern is not universal and must be looked at on a case by case basis. Furthermore, it has been observed that at least for certain stocks, integrating sentiment emotions as additional features into the machine learning based market trend prediction model could improve its accuracy.

* 10 pages, 4 figues, 6 tables 

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Word2Vec and Doc2Vec in Unsupervised Sentiment Analysis of Clinical Discharge Summaries

May 01, 2018
Qufei Chen, Marina Sokolova

In this study, we explored application of Word2Vec and Doc2Vec for sentiment analysis of clinical discharge summaries. We applied unsupervised learning since the data sets did not have sentiment annotations. Note that unsupervised learning is a more realistic scenario than supervised learning which requires an access to a training set of sentiment-annotated data. We aim to detect if there exists any underlying bias towards or against a certain disease. We used SentiWordNet to establish a gold sentiment standard for the data sets and evaluate performance of Word2Vec and Doc2Vec methods. We have shown that the Word2vec and Doc2Vec methods complement each other results in sentiment analysis of the data sets.

* 23 pages, 3 figures, 16 tables 

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Learning to Generate Music With Sentiment

Mar 09, 2021
Lucas N. Ferreira, Jim Whitehead

Deep Learning models have shown very promising results in automatically composing polyphonic music pieces. However, it is very hard to control such models in order to guide the compositions towards a desired goal. We are interested in controlling a model to automatically generate music with a given sentiment. This paper presents a generative Deep Learning model that can be directed to compose music with a given sentiment. Besides music generation, the same model can be used for sentiment analysis of symbolic music. We evaluate the accuracy of the model in classifying sentiment of symbolic music using a new dataset of video game soundtracks. Results show that our model is able to obtain good prediction accuracy. A user study shows that human subjects agreed that the generated music has the intended sentiment, however negative pieces can be ambiguous.

* International Society for Music Information Retrieval (2019) 

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Contextual Sentence Analysis for the Sentiment Prediction on Financial Data

Dec 27, 2021
Elvys Linhares Pontes, Mohamed Benjannet

Newsletters and social networks can reflect the opinion about the market and specific stocks from the perspective of analysts and the general public on products and/or services provided by a company. Therefore, sentiment analysis of these texts can provide useful information to help investors trade in the market. In this paper, a hierarchical stack of Transformers model is proposed to identify the sentiment associated with companies and stocks, by predicting a score (of data type real) in a range between -1 and +1. Specifically, we fine-tuned a RoBERTa model to process headlines and microblogs and combined it with additional Transformer layers to process the sentence analysis with sentiment dictionaries to improve the sentiment analysis. We evaluated it on financial data released by SemEval-2017 task 5 and our proposition outperformed the best systems of SemEval-2017 task 5 and strong baselines. Indeed, the combination of contextual sentence analysis with the financial and general sentiment dictionaries provided useful information to our model and allowed it to generate more reliable sentiment scores.

* Pre-print: 5th International Workshop on Big Data for Financial News and Data 

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Sentiment Perception of Readers and Writers in Emoji use

Jan 09, 2018
Jose Berengueres, Dani Castro

Previous research has traditionally analyzed emoji sentiment from the point of view of the reader of the content not the author. Here, we analyze emoji sentiment from the point of view of the author and present a emoji sentiment benchmark that was built from an employee happiness dataset where emoji happen to be annotated with daily happiness of the author of the comment. The data spans over 3 years, and 4k employees of 56 companies based in Barcelona. We compare sentiment of writers to readers. Results indicate that, there is an 82% agreement in how emoji sentiment is perceived by readers and writers. Finally, we report that when authors use emoji they report higher levels of happiness. Emoji use was not found to be correlated with differences in author moodiness.

* 8 pages, 17 figures 

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SEntiMoji: An Emoji-Powered Learning Approach for Sentiment Analysis in Software Engineering

Jul 04, 2019
Zhenpeng Chen, Yanbin Cao, Xuan Lu, Qiaozhu Mei, Xuanzhe Liu

Sentiment analysis has various application scenarios in software engineering (SE), such as detecting developers' emotions in commit messages and identifying their opinions on Q&A forums. However, commonly used out-of-the-box sentiment analysis tools cannot obtain reliable results on SE tasks and the misunderstanding of technical jargon is demonstrated to be the main reason. Then, researchers have to utilize labeled SE-related texts to customize sentiment analysis for SE tasks via a variety of algorithms. However, the scarce labeled data can cover only very limited expressions and thus cannot guarantee the analysis quality. To address such a problem, we turn to the easily available emoji usage data for help. More specifically, we employ emotional emojis as noisy labels of sentiments and propose a representation learning approach that uses both Tweets and GitHub posts containing emojis to learn sentiment-aware representations for SE-related texts. These emoji-labeled posts can not only supply the technical jargon, but also incorporate more general sentiment patterns shared across domains. They as well as labeled data are used to learn the final sentiment classifier. Compared to the existing sentiment analysis methods used in SE, the proposed approach can achieve significant improvement on representative benchmark datasets. By further contrast experiments, we find that the Tweets make a key contribution to the power of our approach. This finding informs future research not to unilaterally pursue the domain-specific resource, but try to transform knowledge from the open domain through ubiquitous signals such as emojis.

* Accepted by the 2019 ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE 2019). Please include ESEC/FSE in any citations 

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Smile, be Happy :) Emoji Embedding for Visual Sentiment Analysis

Jul 14, 2019
Ziad Al-Halah, Andrew Aitken, Wenzhe Shi, Jose Caballero

Due to the lack of large-scale datasets, the prevailing approach in visual sentiment analysis is to leverage models trained for object classification in large datasets like ImageNet. However, objects are sentiment neutral which hinders the expected gain of transfer learning for such tasks. In this work, we propose to overcome this problem by learning a novel sentiment-aligned image embedding that is better suited for subsequent visual sentiment analysis. Our embedding leverages the intricate relation between emojis and images in large-scale and readily available data from social media. Emojis are language-agnostic, consistent, and carry a clear sentiment signal which make them an excellent proxy to learn a sentiment aligned embedding. Hence, we construct a novel dataset of $4$ million images collected from Twitter with their associated emojis. We train a deep neural model for image embedding using emoji prediction task as a proxy. Our evaluation demonstrates that the proposed embedding outperforms the popular object-based counterpart consistently across several sentiment analysis benchmarks. Furthermore, without bell and whistles, our compact, effective and simple embedding outperforms the more elaborate and customized state-of-the-art deep models on these public benchmarks. Additionally, we introduce a novel emoji representation based on their visual emotional response which support a deeper understanding of the emoji modality and their usage on social media.

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Estimation of Inter-Sentiment Correlations Employing Deep Neural Network Models

Nov 24, 2018
Xinzhi Wang, Shengcheng Yuan, Hui Zhang, Yi Liu

This paper focuses on sentiment mining and sentiment correlation analysis of web events. Although neural network models have contributed a lot to mining text information, little attention is paid to analysis of the inter-sentiment correlations. This paper fills the gap between sentiment calculation and inter-sentiment correlations. In this paper, the social emotion is divided into six categories: love, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and surprise. Two deep neural network models are presented for sentiment calculation. Three datasets - the titles, the bodies, the comments of news articles - are collected, covering both objective and subjective texts in varying lengths (long and short). From each dataset, three kinds of features are extracted: explicit expression, implicit expression, and alphabet characters. The performance of the two models are analyzed, with respect to each of the three kinds of the features. There is controversial phenomenon on the interpretation of anger (fn) and love (gd). In subjective text, other emotions are easily to be considered as anger. By contrast, in objective news bodies and titles, it is easy to regard text as caused love (gd). It means, journalist may want to arouse emotion love by writing news, but cause anger after the news is published. This result reflects the sentiment complexity and unpredictability.

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