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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

Extraction Of Technical Information From Normative Documents Using Automated Methods Based On Ontologies : Application To The Iso 15531 Mandate Standard - Methodology And First Results

Jun 16, 2018
A. F. Cutting-Decelle, A. Digeon, R. I. Young, J. L. Barraud, P. Lamboley

Problems faced by international standardization bodies become more and more crucial as the number and the size of the standards they produce increase. Sometimes, also, the lack of coordination among the committees in charge of the development of standards may lead to overlaps, mistakes or incompatibilities in the documents. The aim of this study is to present a methodology enabling an automatic extraction of the technical concepts (terms) found in normative documents, through the use of semantic tools coming from the field of language processing. The first part of the paper provides a description of the standardization world, its structure, its way of working and the problems faced; we then introduce the concepts of semantic annotation, information extraction and the software tools available in this domain. The next section explains the concept of ontology and its potential use in the field of standardization. We propose here a methodology enabling the extraction of technical information from a given normative corpus, based on a semantic annotation process done according to reference ontologies. The application to the ISO 15531 MANDATE corpus provides a first use case of the methodology described in this paper. The paper ends with the description of the first experimental results produced by this approach, and with some issues and perspectives, notably its application to other standards and, or Technical Committees and the possibility offered to create pre-defined technical dictionaries of terms.

* 28 pages, 11 figures 
  
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Noun-Phrase Analysis in Unrestricted Text for Information Retrieval

May 13, 1996
David A. Evans, Chengxiang Zhai

Information retrieval is an important application area of natural-language processing where one encounters the genuine challenge of processing large quantities of unrestricted natural-language text. This paper reports on the application of a few simple, yet robust and efficient noun-phrase analysis techniques to create better indexing phrases for information retrieval. In particular, we describe a hybrid approach to the extraction of meaningful (continuous or discontinuous) subcompounds from complex noun phrases using both corpus statistics and linguistic heuristics. Results of experiments show that indexing based on such extracted subcompounds improves both recall and precision in an information retrieval system. The noun-phrase analysis techniques are also potentially useful for book indexing and automatic thesaurus extraction.

* Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of Association for Computational Linguistics, Santa Cruz, California, June 24-28, 1996. 17-24. 
* 8 pages, gzipped, uuencoded Postscript file, to appear in ACL'96 
  
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DeepKE: A Deep Learning Based Knowledge Extraction Toolkit for Knowledge Base Population

Jan 24, 2022
Ningyu Zhang, Xin Xu, Liankuan Tao, Haiyang Yu, Hongbin Ye, Xin Xie, Xiang Chen, Zhoubo Li, Lei Li, Xiaozhuan Liang, Yunzhi Yao, Shumin Deng, Wen Zhang, Zhenru Zhang, Chuanqi Tan, Fei Huang, Guozhou Zheng, Huajun Chen

We present a new open-source and extensible knowledge extraction toolkit, called DeepKE (Deep learning based Knowledge Extraction), supporting standard fully supervised, low-resource few-shot and document-level scenarios. DeepKE implements various information extraction tasks, including named entity recognition, relation extraction and attribute extraction. With a unified framework, DeepKE allows developers and researchers to customize datasets and models to extract information from unstructured texts according to their requirements. Specifically, DeepKE not only provides various functional modules and model implementation for different tasks and scenarios but also organizes all components by consistent frameworks to maintain sufficient modularity and extensibility. Besides, we present an online platform in http://deepke.zjukg.cn/ for real-time extraction of various tasks. DeepKE has been equipped with Google Colab tutorials and comprehensive documents for beginners. We release the source code at https://github.com/zjunlp/DeepKE, with a demo video.

* work in progress 
  
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CompactIE: Compact Facts in Open Information Extraction

May 05, 2022
Farima Fatahi Bayat, Nikita Bhutani, H. V. Jagadish

A major drawback of modern neural OpenIE systems and benchmarks is that they prioritize high coverage of information in extractions over compactness of their constituents. This severely limits the usefulness of OpenIE extractions in many downstream tasks. The utility of extractions can be improved if extractions are compact and share constituents. To this end, we study the problem of identifying compact extractions with neural-based methods. We propose CompactIE, an OpenIE system that uses a novel pipelined approach to produce compact extractions with overlapping constituents. It first detects constituents of the extractions and then links them to build extractions. We train our system on compact extractions obtained by processing existing benchmarks. Our experiments on CaRB and Wire57 datasets indicate that CompactIE finds 1.5x-2x more compact extractions than previous systems, with high precision, establishing a new state-of-the-art performance in OpenIE.

  
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Few-Shot Segmentation with Global and Local Contrastive Learning

Aug 11, 2021
Weide Liu, Zhonghua Wu, Henghui Ding, Fayao Liu, Jie Lin, Guosheng Lin

In this work, we address the challenging task of few-shot segmentation. Previous few-shot segmentation methods mainly employ the information of support images as guidance for query image segmentation. Although some works propose to build cross-reference between support and query images, their extraction of query information still depends on the support images. We here propose to extract the information from the query itself independently to benefit the few-shot segmentation task. To this end, we first propose a prior extractor to learn the query information from the unlabeled images with our proposed global-local contrastive learning. Then, we extract a set of predetermined priors via this prior extractor. With the obtained priors, we generate the prior region maps for query images, which locate the objects, as guidance to perform cross interaction with support features. In such a way, the extraction of query information is detached from the support branch, overcoming the limitation by support, and could obtain more informative query clues to achieve better interaction. Without bells and whistles, the proposed approach achieves new state-of-the-art performance for the few-shot segmentation task on PASCAL-5$^{i}$ and COCO datasets.

  
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ArgFuse: A Weakly-Supervised Framework for Document-Level Event Argument Aggregation

Jun 21, 2021
Debanjana Kar, Sudeshna Sarkar, Pawan Goyal

Most of the existing information extraction frameworks (Wadden et al., 2019; Veysehet al., 2020) focus on sentence-level tasks and are hardly able to capture the consolidated information from a given document. In our endeavour to generate precise document-level information frames from lengthy textual records, we introduce the task of Information Aggregation or Argument Aggregation. More specifically, our aim is to filter irrelevant and redundant argument mentions that were extracted at a sentence level and render a document level information frame. Majority of the existing works have been observed to resolve related tasks of document-level event argument extraction (Yang et al., 2018a; Zheng et al., 2019a) and salient entity identification (Jain et al.,2020) using supervised techniques. To remove dependency from large amounts of labelled data, we explore the task of information aggregation using weakly-supervised techniques. In particular, we present an extractive algorithm with multiple sieves which adopts active learning strategies to work efficiently in low-resource settings. For this task, we have annotated our own test dataset comprising of 131 document information frames and have released the code and dataset to further research prospects in this new domain. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to establish baseline results for this task in English. Our data and code are publicly available at https://github.com/DebanjanaKar/ArgFuse.

* 11 pages, 8 figures, Accepted in Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text (CASE) @ACL-IJCNLP 2021 
  
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Document-level Relation Extraction as Semantic Segmentation

Jun 07, 2021
Ningyu Zhang, Xiang Chen, Xin Xie, Shumin Deng, Chuanqi Tan, Mosha Chen, Fei Huang, Luo Si, Huajun Chen

Document-level relation extraction aims to extract relations among multiple entity pairs from a document. Previously proposed graph-based or transformer-based models utilize the entities independently, regardless of global information among relational triples. This paper approaches the problem by predicting an entity-level relation matrix to capture local and global information, parallel to the semantic segmentation task in computer vision. Herein, we propose a Document U-shaped Network for document-level relation extraction. Specifically, we leverage an encoder module to capture the context information of entities and a U-shaped segmentation module over the image-style feature map to capture global interdependency among triples. Experimental results show that our approach can obtain state-of-the-art performance on three benchmark datasets DocRED, CDR, and GDA.

* Accepted by IJCAI 2021 
  
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End-to-end Neural Information Status Classification

Sep 06, 2021
Yufang Hou

Most previous studies on information status (IS) classification and bridging anaphora recognition assume that the gold mention or syntactic tree information is given (Hou et al., 2013; Roesiger et al., 2018; Hou, 2020; Yu and Poesio, 2020). In this paper, we propose an end-to-end neural approach for information status classification. Our approach consists of a mention extraction component and an information status assignment component. During the inference time, our system takes a raw text as the input and generates mentions together with their information status. On the ISNotes corpus (Markert et al., 2012), we show that our information status assignment component achieves new state-of-the-art results on fine-grained IS classification based on gold mentions. Furthermore, our system performs significantly better than other baselines for both mention extraction and fine-grained IS classification in the end-to-end setting. Finally, we apply our system on BASHI (Roesiger, 2018) and SciCorp (Roesiger, 2016) to recognize referential bridging anaphora. We find that our end-to-end system trained on ISNotes achieves competitive results on bridging anaphora recognition compared to the previous state-of-the-art system that relies on syntactic information and is trained on the in-domain datasets (Yu and Poesio, 2020).

* Accepted at EMNLP2021 Findings 
  
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Reinforcement Learning-based Dialogue Guided Event Extraction to Exploit Argument Relations

Jun 23, 2021
Qian Li, Hao Peng, Jianxin Li, Yuanxing Ning, Lihong Wang, Philip S. Yu, Zheng Wang

Event extraction is a fundamental task for natural language processing. Finding the roles of event arguments like event participants is essential for event extraction. However, doing so for real-life event descriptions is challenging because an argument's role often varies in different contexts. While the relationship and interactions between multiple arguments are useful for settling the argument roles, such information is largely ignored by existing approaches. This paper presents a better approach for event extraction by explicitly utilizing the relationships of event arguments. We achieve this through a carefully designed task-oriented dialogue system. To model the argument relation, we employ reinforcement learning and incremental learning to extract multiple arguments via a multi-turned, iterative process. Our approach leverages knowledge of the already extracted arguments of the same sentence to determine the role of arguments that would be difficult to decide individually. It then uses the newly obtained information to improve the decisions of previously extracted arguments. This two-way feedback process allows us to exploit the argument relations to effectively settle argument roles, leading to better sentence understanding and event extraction. Experimental results show that our approach consistently outperforms seven state-of-the-art event extraction methods for the classification of events and argument role and argument identification.

  
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