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"Image To Image Translation": models, code, and papers

Image Disentanglement and Uncooperative Re-Entanglement for High-Fidelity Image-to-Image Translation

Jan 11, 2019
Adam W. Harley, Shih-En Wei, Jason Saragih, Katerina Fragkiadaki

Cross-domain image-to-image translation should satisfy two requirements: (1) preserve the information that is common to both domains, and (2) generate convincing images covering variations that appear in the target domain. This is challenging, especially when there are no example translations available as supervision. Adversarial cycle consistency was recently proposed as a solution, with beautiful and creative results, yielding much follow-up work. However, augmented reality applications cannot readily use such techniques to provide users with compelling translations of real scenes, because the translations do not have high-fidelity constraints. In other words, current models are liable to change details that should be preserved: while re-texturing a face, they may alter the face's expression in an unpredictable way. In this paper, we introduce the problem of high-fidelity image-to-image translation, and present a method for solving it. Our main insight is that low-fidelity translations typically escape a cycle-consistency penalty, because the back-translator learns to compensate for the forward-translator's errors. We therefore introduce an optimization technique that prevents the networks from cooperating: simply train each network only when its input data is real. Prior works, in comparison, train each network with a mix of real and generated data. Experimental results show that our method accurately disentangles the factors that separate the domains, and converges to semantics-preserving translations that prior methods miss.


Show, Attend and Translate: Unsupervised Image Translation with Self-Regularization and Attention

Jun 16, 2018
Chao Yang, Taehwan Kim, Ruizhe Wang, Hao Peng, C. -C. Jay Kuo

Image translation between two domains is a class of problems aiming to learn mapping from an input image in the source domain to an output image in the target domain. It has been applied to numerous domains, such as data augmentation, domain adaptation, and unsupervised training. When paired training data is not accessible, image translation becomes an ill-posed problem. We constrain the problem with the assumption that the translated image needs to be perceptually similar to the original image and also appears to be drawn from the new domain, and propose a simple yet effective image translation model consisting of a single generator trained with a self-regularization term and an adversarial term. We further notice that existing image translation techniques are agnostic to the subjects of interest and often introduce unwanted changes or artifacts to the input. Thus we propose to add an attention module to predict an attention map to guide the image translation process. The module learns to attend to key parts of the image while keeping everything else unaltered, essentially avoiding undesired artifacts or changes. The predicted attention map also opens door to applications such as unsupervised segmentation and saliency detection. Extensive experiments and evaluations show that our model while being simpler, achieves significantly better performance than existing image translation methods.


Breaking the Dilemma of Medical Image-to-image Translation

Oct 13, 2021
Lingke Kong, Chenyu Lian, Detian Huang, Zhenjiang Li, Yanle Hu, Qichao Zhou

Supervised Pix2Pix and unsupervised Cycle-consistency are two modes that dominate the field of medical image-to-image translation. However, neither modes are ideal. The Pix2Pix mode has excellent performance. But it requires paired and well pixel-wise aligned images, which may not always be achievable due to respiratory motion or anatomy change between times that paired images are acquired. The Cycle-consistency mode is less stringent with training data and works well on unpaired or misaligned images. But its performance may not be optimal. In order to break the dilemma of the existing modes, we propose a new unsupervised mode called RegGAN for medical image-to-image translation. It is based on the theory of "loss-correction". In RegGAN, the misaligned target images are considered as noisy labels and the generator is trained with an additional registration network to fit the misaligned noise distribution adaptively. The goal is to search for the common optimal solution to both image-to-image translation and registration tasks. We incorporated RegGAN into a few state-of-the-art image-to-image translation methods and demonstrated that RegGAN could be easily combined with these methods to improve their performances. Such as a simple CycleGAN in our mode surpasses latest NICEGAN even though using less network parameters. Based on our results, RegGAN outperformed both Pix2Pix on aligned data and Cycle-consistency on misaligned or unpaired data. RegGAN is insensitive to noises which makes it a better choice for a wide range of scenarios, especially for medical image-to-image translation tasks in which well pixel-wise aligned data are not available


GANHopper: Multi-Hop GAN for Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation

Feb 29, 2020
Wallace Lira, Johannes Merz, Daniel Ritchie, Daniel Cohen-Or, Hao Zhang

We introduce GANHopper, an unsupervised image-to-image translation network that transforms images gradually between two domains, through multiple hops. Instead of executing translation directly, we steer the translation by requiring the network to produce in-between images which resemble weighted hybrids between images from the two in-put domains. Our network is trained on unpaired images from the two domains only, without any in-between images.All hops are produced using a single generator along each direction. In addition to the standard cycle-consistency and adversarial losses, we introduce a new hybrid discrimina-tor, which is trained to classify the intermediate images produced by the generator as weighted hybrids, with weights based on a predetermined hop count. We also introduce a smoothness term to constrain the magnitude of each hop,further regularizing the translation. Compared to previous methods, GANHopper excels at image translations involving domain-specific image features and geometric variations while also preserving non-domain-specific features such as backgrounds and general color schemes.

* 9 pages, 9 figures 

Is Image-to-Image Translation the Panacea for Multimodal Image Registration? A Comparative Study

Mar 30, 2021
Jiahao Lu, Johan Öfverstedt, Joakim Lindblad, Nataša Sladoje

Despite current advancement in the field of biomedical image processing, propelled by the deep learning revolution, multimodal image registration, due to its several challenges, is still often performed manually by specialists. The recent success of image-to-image (I2I) translation in computer vision applications and its growing use in biomedical areas provide a tempting possibility of transforming the multimodal registration problem into a, potentially easier, monomodal one. We conduct an empirical study of the applicability of modern I2I translation methods for the task of multimodal biomedical image registration. We compare the performance of four Generative Adversarial Network (GAN)-based methods and one contrastive representation learning method, subsequently combined with two representative monomodal registration methods, to judge the effectiveness of modality translation for multimodal image registration. We evaluate these method combinations on three publicly available multimodal datasets of increasing difficulty, and compare with the performance of registration by Mutual Information maximisation and one modern data-specific multimodal registration method. Our results suggest that, although I2I translation may be helpful when the modalities to register are clearly correlated, registration of modalities which express distinctly different properties of the sample are not well handled by the I2I translation approach. When less information is shared between the modalities, the I2I translation methods struggle to provide good predictions, which impairs the registration performance. The evaluated representation learning method, which aims to find an in-between representation, manages better, and so does the Mutual Information maximisation approach. We share our complete experimental setup as open-source (

* 32 pages, 7 figures 

Asymmetric Generative Adversarial Networks for Image-to-Image Translation

Dec 14, 2019
Hao Tang, Dan Xu, Hong Liu, Nicu Sebe

State-of-the-art models for unpaired image-to-image translation with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) can learn the mapping from the source domain to the target domain using a cycle-consistency loss. The intuition behind these models is that if we translate from one domain to the other and back again we should arrive at where we started. However, existing methods always adopt a symmetric network architecture to learn both forward and backward cycles. Because of the task complexity and cycle input difference between the source and target image domains, the inequality in bidirectional forward-backward cycle translations is significant and the amount of information between two domains is different. In this paper, we analyze the limitation of the existing symmetric GAN models in asymmetric translation tasks, and propose an AsymmetricGAN model with both translation and reconstruction generators of unequal sizes and different parameter-sharing strategy to adapt to the asymmetric need in both unsupervised and supervised image-to-image translation tasks. Moreover, the training stage of existing methods has the common problem of model collapse that degrades the quality of the generated images, thus we explore different optimization losses for better training of AsymmetricGAN, and thus make image-to-image translation with higher consistency and better stability. Extensive experiments on both supervised and unsupervised generative tasks with several publicly available datasets demonstrate that the proposed AsymmetricGAN achieves superior model capacity and better generation performance compared with existing GAN models. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to investigate the asymmetric GAN framework on both unsupervised and supervised image-to-image translation tasks. The source code, data and trained models are available at

* An extended version of a paper published in ACCV2018. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1901.04604 

Multi-domain Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation with Appearance Adaptive Convolution

Feb 06, 2022
Somi Jeong, Jiyoung Lee, Kwanghoon Sohn

Over the past few years, image-to-image (I2I) translation methods have been proposed to translate a given image into diverse outputs. Despite the impressive results, they mainly focus on the I2I translation between two domains, so the multi-domain I2I translation still remains a challenge. To address this problem, we propose a novel multi-domain unsupervised image-to-image translation (MDUIT) framework that leverages the decomposed content feature and appearance adaptive convolution to translate an image into a target appearance while preserving the given geometric content. We also exploit a contrast learning objective, which improves the disentanglement ability and effectively utilizes multi-domain image data in the training process by pairing the semantically similar images. This allows our method to learn the diverse mappings between multiple visual domains with only a single framework. We show that the proposed method produces visually diverse and plausible results in multiple domains compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

* ICASSP 2022 

TransGaGa: Geometry-Aware Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation

Apr 21, 2019
Wayne Wu, Kaidi Cao, Cheng Li, Chen Qian, Chen Change Loy

Unsupervised image-to-image translation aims at learning a mapping between two visual domains. However, learning a translation across large geometry variations always ends up with failure. In this work, we present a novel disentangle-and-translate framework to tackle the complex objects image-to-image translation task. Instead of learning the mapping on the image space directly, we disentangle image space into a Cartesian product of the appearance and the geometry latent spaces. Specifically, we first introduce a geometry prior loss and a conditional VAE loss to encourage the network to learn independent but complementary representations. The translation is then built on appearance and geometry space separately. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superior performance of our method to other state-of-the-art approaches, especially in the challenging near-rigid and non-rigid objects translation tasks. In addition, by taking different exemplars as the appearance references, our method also supports multimodal translation. Project page:

* Accepted to CVPR 2019. Project page: 

Generating large labeled data sets for laparoscopic image processing tasks using unpaired image-to-image translation

Jul 05, 2019
Micha Pfeiffer, Isabel Funke, Maria R. Robu, Sebastian Bodenstedt, Leon Strenger, Sandy Engelhardt, Tobias Roß, Matthew J. Clarkson, Kurinchi Gurusamy, Brian R. Davidson, Lena Maier-Hein, Carina Riediger, Thilo Welsch, Jürgen Weitz, Stefanie Speidel

In the medical domain, the lack of large training data sets and benchmarks is often a limiting factor for training deep neural networks. In contrast to expensive manual labeling, computer simulations can generate large and fully labeled data sets with a minimum of manual effort. However, models that are trained on simulated data usually do not translate well to real scenarios. To bridge the domain gap between simulated and real laparoscopic images, we exploit recent advances in unpaired image-to-image translation. We extent an image-to-image translation method to generate a diverse multitude of realistically looking synthetic images based on images from a simple laparoscopy simulation. By incorporating means to ensure that the image content is preserved during the translation process, we ensure that the labels given for the simulated images remain valid for their realistically looking translations. This way, we are able to generate a large, fully labeled synthetic data set of laparoscopic images with realistic appearance. We show that this data set can be used to train models for the task of liver segmentation of laparoscopic images. We achieve average dice scores of up to 0.89 in some patients without manually labeling a single laparoscopic image and show that using our synthetic data to pre-train models can greatly improve their performance. The synthetic data set will be made publicly available, fully labeled with segmentation maps, depth maps, normal maps, and positions of tools and camera (

* Accepted at MICCAI 2019