We introduce API Pack, a multilingual dataset featuring over one million instruction-API call pairs aimed at advancing large language models' API call generation capabilities. Through experiments, we demonstrate API Pack's efficacy in enhancing models for this specialized task while maintaining their overall proficiency at general coding. Fine-tuning CodeLlama-13B on just 20,000 Python instances yields over 10% and 5% higher accuracy than GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 respectively in generating unseen API calls. Scaling to 100k examples improves generalization to new APIs not seen during training. In addition, cross-lingual API call generation is achieved without needing extensive data per language. The dataset, fine-tuned models, and overall code base are publicly available at https://github.com/zguo0525/API-Pack.
We aim to select data subsets for the fine-tuning of large language models to more effectively follow instructions. Prior work has emphasized the importance of diversity in dataset curation but relied on heuristics such as the number of tasks. In this paper, we use determinantal point processes to capture the diversity and quality of instruction tuning datasets for subset selection. We propose to measure dataset diversity with log determinant distance that is the distance between the dataset of interest and a maximally diverse reference dataset. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed diversity measure in the normalized weight gradient space is correlated with downstream instruction-following performance. Consequently, it can be used to inform when data selection is the most helpful and to analyze dataset curation strategies. We demonstrate the utility of our approach on various instruction tuning datasets.
Large language models (LLMs) have opened up enormous opportunities while simultaneously posing ethical dilemmas. One of the major concerns is their ability to create text that closely mimics human writing, which can lead to potential misuse, such as academic misconduct, disinformation, and fraud. To address this problem, we present AuthentiGPT, an efficient classifier that distinguishes between machine-generated and human-written texts. Under the assumption that human-written text resides outside the distribution of machine-generated text, AuthentiGPT leverages a black-box LLM to denoise input text with artificially added noise, and then semantically compares the denoised text with the original to determine if the content is machine-generated. With only one trainable parameter, AuthentiGPT eliminates the need for a large training dataset, watermarking the LLM's output, or computing the log-likelihood. Importantly, the detection capability of AuthentiGPT can be easily adapted to any generative language model. With a 0.918 AUROC score on a domain-specific dataset, AuthentiGPT demonstrates its effectiveness over other commercial algorithms, highlighting its potential for detecting machine-generated text in academic settings.
Large language models exhibit promising general capabilities but often lack specialized knowledge for domain-specific tasks. Developing domain experts from a base model enables a range of applications without prohibitive training costs. This work demonstrates a method using continuous training and instruction fine-tuning to rapidly adapt Llama 2 base models to the Chinese medical domain. We first conduct continuous training on 1B tokens from Chinese medical references to teach relevant vocabulary and knowledge. The models are then fine-tuned on 54K examples sourced from the Chinese National Medical Licensing Examination. Experiments on Chinese medical data confirm the effectiveness of this approach, producing a model comparable to GPT-3.5-turbo while using way less computational resource. The resulting domain-specific model could be useful for various Chinese medical applications. More broadly, this provides a template for domain-specific training of large language models in areas where pre-trained models lack the required expertise, such as law, science, and engineering.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have made remarkable strides in natural language processing, but their expanding size poses challenges in terms of computational expense and inefficiency. Conversely, Small Language Models (SLMs) are known for their efficiency but often encounter difficulties in tasks with limited capacity and training data, particularly in domain-specific scenarios. In this paper, we introduce Dr. LLaMA, a method that improves SLMs in the medical domain through generative data augmentation utilizing LLMs. The objective is to develop more efficient and capable models tailored for specialized applications. Our preliminary results on the PubMedQA dataset demonstrate that LLMs effectively refine and diversify existing question-answer pairs, leading to improved performance of a significantly smaller model after fine-tuning. The best SLM surpasses few-shot GPT-4 with under 1.6 billion parameters on the PubMedQA. Our code and generated data are publicly available to facilitate further explorations.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have made significant strides in natural language processing but face challenges in terms of computational expense and inefficiency as they grow in size, especially in domain-specific tasks. Small Language Models (SLMs), on the other hand, often struggle in these tasks due to limited capacity and training data. In this paper, we introduce Dr. LLaMA, a method for improving SLMs through generative data augmentation using LLMs, focusing on medical question-answering tasks and the PubMedQA dataset. Our findings indicate that LLMs effectively refine and diversify existing question-answer pairs, resulting in improved performance of a much smaller model on domain-specific QA datasets after fine-tuning. This study highlights the challenges of using LLMs for domain-specific question answering and suggests potential research directions to address these limitations, ultimately aiming to create more efficient and capable models for specialized applications. We have also made our code available for interested researchers
Due to various and serious adverse impacts of spreading fake news, it is often known that only people with malicious intent would propagate fake news. However, it is not necessarily true based on social science studies. Distinguishing the types of fake news spreaders based on their intent is critical because it will effectively guide how to intervene to mitigate the spread of fake news with different approaches. To this end, we propose an intent classification framework that can best identify the correct intent of fake news. We will leverage deep reinforcement learning (DRL) that can optimize the structural representation of each tweet by removing noisy words from the input sequence when appending an actor to the long short-term memory (LSTM) intent classifier. Policy gradient DRL model (e.g., REINFORCE) can lead the actor to a higher delayed reward. We also devise a new uncertainty-aware immediate reward using a subjective opinion that can explicitly deal with multidimensional uncertainty for effective decision-making. Via 600K training episodes from a fake news tweets dataset with an annotated intent class, we evaluate the performance of uncertainty-aware reward in DRL. Evaluation results demonstrate that our proposed framework efficiently reduces the number of selected words to maintain a high 95\% multi-class accuracy.
Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) is a highly popular policy-based deep reinforcement learning (DRL) approach. However, we observe that the homogeneous exploration process in PPO could cause an unexpected stability issue in the training phase. To address this issue, we propose PPO-UE, a PPO variant equipped with self-adaptive uncertainty-aware explorations (UEs) based on a ratio uncertainty level. The proposed PPO-UE is designed to improve convergence speed and performance with an optimized ratio uncertainty level. Through extensive sensitivity analysis by varying the ratio uncertainty level, our proposed PPO-UE considerably outperforms the baseline PPO in Roboschool continuous control tasks.
We propose a noise-resilient deep reconstruction algorithm for X-ray tomography. Our approach shows strong noise resilience without obtaining noisy training examples. The advantages of our framework may further enable low-photon tomographic imaging.
* 2022 CLEO (the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics) conference
Dialogue contradiction is a critical issue in open-domain dialogue systems. The contextualization nature of conversations makes dialogue contradiction detection rather challenging. In this work, we propose a benchmark for Contradiction Detection in Chinese Conversations, namely CDConv. It contains 12K multi-turn conversations annotated with three typical contradiction categories: Intra-sentence Contradiction, Role Confusion, and History Contradiction. To efficiently construct the CDConv conversations, we devise a series of methods for automatic conversation generation, which simulate common user behaviors that trigger chatbots to make contradictions. We conduct careful manual quality screening of the constructed conversations and show that state-of-the-art Chinese chatbots can be easily goaded into making contradictions. Experiments on CDConv show that properly modeling contextual information is critical for dialogue contradiction detection, but there are still unresolved challenges that require future research.