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Uri Sherman, Alon Cohen, Tomer Koren, Yishay Mansour

We study regret minimization in online episodic linear Markov Decision Processes, and obtain rate-optimal $\widetilde O (\sqrt K)$ regret where $K$ denotes the number of episodes. Our work is the first to establish the optimal (w.r.t.~$K$) rate of convergence in the stochastic setting with bandit feedback using a policy optimization based approach, and the first to establish the optimal (w.r.t.~$K$) rate in the adversarial setup with full information feedback, for which no algorithm with an optimal rate guarantee is currently known.

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Nataly Brukhim, Amit Daniely, Yishay Mansour, Shay Moran

We study a generalization of boosting to the multiclass setting. We introduce a weak learning condition for multiclass classification that captures the original notion of weak learnability as being "slightly better than random guessing". We give a simple and efficient boosting algorithm, that does not require realizability assumptions and its sample and oracle complexity bounds are independent of the number of classes. In addition, we utilize our new boosting technique in several theoretical applications within the context of List PAC Learning. First, we establish an equivalence to weak PAC learning. Furthermore, we present a new result on boosting for list learners, as well as provide a novel proof for the characterization of multiclass PAC learning and List PAC learning. Notably, our technique gives rise to a simplified analysis, and also implies an improved error bound for large list sizes, compared to previous results.

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Dana Azouri, Oz Granit, Michael Alburquerque, Yishay Mansour, Tal Pupko, Itay Mayrose

We propose a reinforcement-learning algorithm to tackle the challenge of reconstructing phylogenetic trees. The search for the tree that best describes the data is algorithmically challenging, thus all current algorithms for phylogeny reconstruction use various heuristics to make it feasible. In this study, we demonstrate that reinforcement learning can be used to learn an optimal search strategy, thus providing a novel paradigm for predicting the maximum-likelihood tree. Our proposed method does not require likelihood calculation with every step, nor is it limited to greedy uphill moves in the likelihood space. We demonstrate the use of the developed deep-Q-learning agent on a set of unseen empirical data, namely, on unseen environments defined by nucleotide alignments of up to 20 sequences. Our results show that the likelihood scores of the inferred phylogenies are similar to those obtained from widely-used software. It thus establishes a proof-of-concept that it is beneficial to optimize a sequence of moves in the search-space, rather than optimizing the progress made in every single move only. This suggests that a reinforcement-learning based method provides a promising direction for phylogenetic reconstruction.

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Orin Levy, Alon Cohen, Asaf Cassel, Yishay Mansour

We present the OMG-CMDP! algorithm for regret minimization in adversarial Contextual MDPs. The algorithm operates under the minimal assumptions of realizable function class and access to online least squares and log loss regression oracles. Our algorithm is efficient (assuming efficient online regression oracles), simple and robust to approximation errors. It enjoys an $\widetilde{O}(H^{2.5} \sqrt{ T|S||A| ( \mathcal{R}(\mathcal{O}) + H \log(\delta^{-1}) )})$ regret guarantee, with $T$ being the number of episodes, $S$ the state space, $A$ the action space, $H$ the horizon and $\mathcal{R}(\mathcal{O}) = \mathcal{R}(\mathcal{O}_{\mathrm{sq}}^\mathcal{F}) + \mathcal{R}(\mathcal{O}_{\mathrm{log}}^\mathcal{P})$ is the sum of the regression oracles' regret, used to approximate the context-dependent rewards and dynamics, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, our algorithm is the first efficient rate optimal regret minimization algorithm for adversarial CMDPs that operates under the minimal standard assumption of online function approximation.

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Haim Kaplan, Yishay Mansour, Shay Moran, Kobbi Nissim, Uri Stemmer

In this work we introduce an interactive variant of joint differential privacy towards handling online processes in which existing privacy definitions seem too restrictive. We study basic properties of this definition and demonstrate that it satisfies (suitable variants) of group privacy, composition, and post processing. We then study the cost of interactive joint privacy in the basic setting of online classification. We show that any (possibly non-private) learning rule can be effectively transformed to a private learning rule with only a polynomial overhead in the mistake bound. This demonstrates a stark difference with more restrictive notions of privacy such as the one studied by Golowich and Livni (2021), where only a double exponential overhead on the mistake bound is known (via an information theoretic upper bound).

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Han Shao, Lee Cohen, Avrim Blum, Yishay Mansour, Aadirupa Saha, Matthew R. Walter

In classic reinforcement learning (RL) and decision making problems, policies are evaluated with respect to a scalar reward function, and all optimal policies are the same with regards to their expected return. However, many real-world problems involve balancing multiple, sometimes conflicting, objectives whose relative priority will vary according to the preferences of each user. Consequently, a policy that is optimal for one user might be sub-optimal for another. In this work, we propose a multi-objective decision making framework that accommodates different user preferences over objectives, where preferences are learned via policy comparisons. Our model consists of a Markov decision process with a vector-valued reward function, with each user having an unknown preference vector that expresses the relative importance of each objective. The goal is to efficiently compute a near-optimal policy for a given user. We consider two user feedback models. We first address the case where a user is provided with two policies and returns their preferred policy as feedback. We then move to a different user feedback model, where a user is instead provided with two small weighted sets of representative trajectories and selects the preferred one. In both cases, we suggest an algorithm that finds a nearly optimal policy for the user using a small number of comparison queries.

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Yogev Bar-On, Yishay Mansour

Decentralized Exchanges (DEXs) are new types of marketplaces leveraging Blockchain technology. They allow users to trade assets with Automatic Market Makers (AMM), using funds provided by liquidity providers, removing the need for order books. One such DEX, Uniswap v3, allows liquidity providers to allocate funds more efficiently by specifying an active price interval for their funds. This introduces the problem of finding an optimal strategy for choosing price intervals. We formalize this problem as an online learning problem with non-stochastic rewards. We use regret-minimization methods to show a liquidity provision strategy that guarantees a lower bound on the reward. This is true even for non-stochastic changes to asset pricing, and we express this bound in terms of the trading volume.

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Christoph Dann, Yishay Mansour, Mehryar Mohri, Jon Schneider, Balasubramanian Sivan

Blackwell's celebrated approachability theory provides a general framework for a variety of learning problems, including regret minimization. However, Blackwell's proof and implicit algorithm measure approachability using the $\ell_2$ (Euclidean) distance. We argue that in many applications such as regret minimization, it is more useful to study approachability under other distance metrics, most commonly the $\ell_\infty$-metric. But, the time and space complexity of the algorithms designed for $\ell_\infty$-approachability depend on the dimension of the space of the vectorial payoffs, which is often prohibitively large. Thus, we present a framework for converting high-dimensional $\ell_\infty$-approachability problems to low-dimensional pseudonorm approachability problems, thereby resolving such issues. We first show that the $\ell_\infty$-distance between the average payoff and the approachability set can be equivalently defined as a pseudodistance between a lower-dimensional average vector payoff and a new convex set we define. Next, we develop an algorithmic theory of pseudonorm approachability, analogous to previous work on approachability for $\ell_2$ and other norms, showing that it can be achieved via online linear optimization (OLO) over a convex set given by the Fenchel dual of the unit pseudonorm ball. We then use that to show, modulo mild normalization assumptions, that there exists an $\ell_\infty$-approachability algorithm whose convergence is independent of the dimension of the original vectorial payoff. We further show that that algorithm admits a polynomial-time complexity, assuming that the original $\ell_\infty$-distance can be computed efficiently. We also give an $\ell_\infty$-approachability algorithm whose convergence is logarithmic in that dimension using an FTRL algorithm with a maximum-entropy regularizer.

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Uri Sherman, Tomer Koren, Yishay Mansour

We study reinforcement learning with linear function approximation and adversarially changing cost functions, a setup that has mostly been considered under simplifying assumptions such as full information feedback or exploratory conditions.We present a computationally efficient policy optimization algorithm for the challenging general setting of unknown dynamics and bandit feedback, featuring a combination of mirror-descent and least squares policy evaluation in an auxiliary MDP used to compute exploration bonuses.Our algorithm obtains an $\widetilde O(K^{6/7})$ regret bound, improving significantly over previous state-of-the-art of $\widetilde O (K^{14/15})$ in this setting. In addition, we present a version of the same algorithm under the assumption a simulator of the environment is available to the learner (but otherwise no exploratory assumptions are made), and prove it obtains state-of-the-art regret of $\widetilde O (K^{2/3})$.

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