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Stephen Pasteris, Alberto Rumi, Fabio Vitale, Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi

Many online decision-making problems correspond to maximizing a sequence of submodular functions. In this work, we introduce sum-max functions, a subclass of monotone submodular functions capturing several interesting problems, including best-of-$K$-bandits, combinatorial bandits, and the bandit versions on facility location, $M$-medians, and hitting sets. We show that all functions in this class satisfy a key property that we call pseudo-concavity. This allows us to prove $\big(1 - \frac{1}{e}\big)$-regret bounds for bandit feedback in the nonstochastic setting of the order of $\sqrt{MKT}$ (ignoring log factors), where $T$ is the time horizon and $M$ is a cardinality constraint. This bound, attained by a simple and efficient algorithm, significantly improves on the $\widetilde{O}\big(T^{2/3}\big)$ regret bound for online monotone submodular maximization with bandit feedback.

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Juliette Achddou, Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi, Pierre Laforgue

We study multitask online learning in a setting where agents can only exchange information with their neighbors on an arbitrary communication network. We introduce $\texttt{MT-CO}_2\texttt{OL}$, a decentralized algorithm for this setting whose regret depends on the interplay between the task similarities and the network structure. Our analysis shows that the regret of $\texttt{MT-CO}_2\texttt{OL}$ is never worse (up to constants) than the bound obtained when agents do not share information. On the other hand, our bounds significantly improve when neighboring agents operate on similar tasks. In addition, we prove that our algorithm can be made differentially private with a negligible impact on the regret when the losses are linear. Finally, we provide experimental support for our theory.

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Dirk van der Hoeven, Nikita Zhivotovskiy, Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi

Online learning methods yield sequential regret bounds under minimal assumptions and provide in-expectation risk bounds for statistical learning. However, despite the apparent advantage of online guarantees over their statistical counterparts, recent findings indicate that in many important cases, regret bounds may not guarantee tight high-probability risk bounds in the statistical setting. In this work we show that online to batch conversions applied to general online learning algorithms can bypass this limitation. Via a general second-order correction to the loss function defining the regret, we obtain nearly optimal high-probability risk bounds for several classical statistical estimation problems, such as discrete distribution estimation, linear regression, logistic regression, and conditional density estimation. Our analysis relies on the fact that many online learning algorithms are improper, as they are not restricted to use predictors from a given reference class. The improper nature of our estimators enables significant improvements in the dependencies on various problem parameters. Finally, we discuss some computational advantages of our sequential algorithms over their existing batch counterparts.

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Pier Giuseppe Sessa, Pierre Laforgue, Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi, Andreas Krause

Multitask learning is a powerful framework that enables one to simultaneously learn multiple related tasks by sharing information between them. Quantifying uncertainty in the estimated tasks is of pivotal importance for many downstream applications, such as online or active learning. In this work, we provide novel multitask confidence intervals in the challenging agnostic setting, i.e., when neither the similarity between tasks nor the tasks' features are available to the learner. The obtained intervals do not require i.i.d. data and can be directly applied to bound the regret in online learning. Through a refined analysis of the multitask information gain, we obtain new regret guarantees that, depending on a task similarity parameter, can significantly improve over treating tasks independently. We further propose a novel online learning algorithm that achieves such improved regret without knowing this parameter in advance, i.e., automatically adapting to task similarity. As a second key application of our results, we introduce a novel multitask active learning setup where several tasks must be simultaneously optimized, but only one of them can be queried for feedback by the learner at each round. For this problem, we design a no-regret algorithm that uses our confidence intervals to decide which task should be queried. Finally, we empirically validate our bounds and algorithms on synthetic and real-world (drug discovery) data.

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Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi, Tommaso Cesari, Roberto Colomboni, Federico Fusco, Stefano Leonardi

We study the problem of regret minimization for a single bidder in a sequence of first-price auctions where the bidder knows the item's value only if the auction is won. Our main contribution is a complete characterization, up to logarithmic factors, of the minimax regret in terms of the auction's transparency, which regulates the amount of information on competing bids disclosed by the auctioneer at the end of each auction. Our results hold under different assumptions (stochastic, adversarial, and their smoothed variants) on the environment generating the bidder's valuations and competing bids. These minimax rates reveal how the interplay between transparency and the nature of the environment affects how fast one can learn to bid optimally in first-price auctions.

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Emmanuel Esposito, Saeed Masoudian, Hao Qiu, Dirk van der Hoeven, Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi, Yevgeny Seldin

We study a $K$-armed bandit with delayed feedback and intermediate observations. We consider a model where intermediate observations have a form of a finite state, which is observed immediately after taking an action, whereas the loss is observed after an adversarially chosen delay. We show that the regime of the mapping of states to losses determines the complexity of the problem, irrespective of whether the mapping of actions to states is stochastic or adversarial. If the mapping of states to losses is adversarial, then the regret rate is of order $\sqrt{(K+d)T}$ (within log factors), where $T$ is the time horizon and $d$ is a fixed delay. This matches the regret rate of a $K$-armed bandit with delayed feedback and without intermediate observations, implying that intermediate observations are not helpful. However, if the mapping of states to losses is stochastic, we show that the regret grows at a rate of $\sqrt{\big(K+\min\{|\mathcal{S}|,d\}\big)T}$ (within log factors), implying that if the number $|\mathcal{S}|$ of states is smaller than the delay, then intermediate observations help. We also provide refined high-probability regret upper bounds for non-uniform delays, together with experimental validation of our algorithms.

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Khaled Eldowa, Emmanuel Esposito, Tommaso Cesari, Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi

In this work, we improve on the upper and lower bounds for the regret of online learning with strongly observable undirected feedback graphs. The best known upper bound for this problem is $\mathcal{O}\bigl(\sqrt{\alpha T\ln K}\bigr)$, where $K$ is the number of actions, $\alpha$ is the independence number of the graph, and $T$ is the time horizon. The $\sqrt{\ln K}$ factor is known to be necessary when $\alpha = 1$ (the experts case). On the other hand, when $\alpha = K$ (the bandits case), the minimax rate is known to be $\Theta\bigl(\sqrt{KT}\bigr)$, and a lower bound $\Omega\bigl(\sqrt{\alpha T}\bigr)$ is known to hold for any $\alpha$. Our improved upper bound $\mathcal{O}\bigl(\sqrt{\alpha T(1+\ln(K/\alpha))}\bigr)$ holds for any $\alpha$ and matches the lower bounds for bandits and experts, while interpolating intermediate cases. To prove this result, we use FTRL with $q$-Tsallis entropy for a carefully chosen value of $q \in [1/2, 1)$ that varies with $\alpha$. The analysis of this algorithm requires a new bound on the variance term in the regret. We also show how to extend our techniques to time-varying graphs, without requiring prior knowledge of their independence numbers. Our upper bound is complemented by an improved $\Omega\bigl(\sqrt{\alpha T(\ln K)/(\ln\alpha)}\bigr)$ lower bound for all $\alpha > 1$, whose analysis relies on a novel reduction to multitask learning. This shows that a logarithmic factor is necessary as soon as $\alpha < K$.

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Khaled Eldowa, Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi, Alberto Maria Metelli, Marcello Restelli

We investigate the problem of bandits with expert advice when the experts are fixed and known distributions over the actions. Improving on previous analyses, we show that the regret in this setting is controlled by information-theoretic quantities that measure the similarity between experts. In some natural special cases, this allows us to obtain the first regret bound for EXP4 that can get arbitrarily close to zero if the experts are similar enough. While for a different algorithm, we provide another bound that describes the similarity between the experts in terms of the KL-divergence, and we show that this bound can be smaller than the one of EXP4 in some cases. Additionally, we provide lower bounds for certain classes of experts showing that the algorithms we analyzed are nearly optimal in some cases.

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Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi, Tommaso Cesari, Roberto Colomboni, Federico Fusco, Stefano Leonardi

We study repeated bilateral trade where an adaptive $\sigma$-smooth adversary generates the valuations of sellers and buyers. We provide a complete characterization of the regret regimes for fixed-price mechanisms under different feedback models in the two cases where the learner can post either the same or different prices to buyers and sellers. We begin by showing that the minimax regret after $T$ rounds is of order $\sqrt{T}$ in the full-feedback scenario. Under partial feedback, any algorithm that has to post the same price to buyers and sellers suffers worst-case linear regret. However, when the learner can post two different prices at each round, we design an algorithm enjoying regret of order $T^{3/4}$ ignoring log factors. We prove that this rate is optimal by presenting a surprising $T^{3/4}$ lower bound, which is the main technical contribution of the paper.

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Giulia Clerici, Pierre Laforgue, Nicolò Cesa-Bianchi

Nonstationary phenomena, such as satiation effects in recommendation, are a common feature of sequential decision-making problems. While these phenomena have been mostly studied in the framework of bandits with finitely many arms, in many practically relevant cases linear bandits provide a more effective modeling choice. In this work, we introduce a general framework for the study of nonstationary linear bandits, where current rewards are influenced by the learner's past actions in a fixed-size window. In particular, our model includes stationary linear bandits as a special case. After showing that the best sequence of actions is NP-hard to compute in our model, we focus on cyclic policies and prove a regret bound for a variant of the OFUL algorithm that balances approximation and estimation errors. Our theoretical findings are supported by experiments (which also include misspecified settings) where our algorithm is seen to perform well against natural baselines.

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