Emotion recognition in smart eyewear devices is highly valuable but challenging. One key limitation of previous works is that the expression-related information like facial or eye images is considered as the only emotional evidence. However, emotional status is not isolated; it is tightly associated with people's visual perceptions, especially those sentimental ones. However, little work has examined such associations to better illustrate the cause of different emotions. In this paper, we study the emotionship analysis problem in eyewear systems, an ambitious task that requires not only classifying the user's emotions but also semantically understanding the potential cause of such emotions. To this end, we devise EMOShip, a deep-learning-based eyewear system that can automatically detect the wearer's emotional status and simultaneously analyze its associations with semantic-level visual perceptions. Experimental studies with 20 participants demonstrate that, thanks to the emotionship awareness, EMOShip not only achieves superior emotion recognition accuracy over existing methods (80.2% vs. 69.4%), but also provides a valuable understanding of the cause of emotions. Pilot studies with 20 participants further motivate the potential use of EMOShip to empower emotion-aware applications, such as emotionship self-reflection and emotionship life-logging.
This work presents MemX: a biologically-inspired attention-aware eyewear system developed with the goal of pursuing the long-awaited vision of a personalized visual Memex. MemX captures human visual attention on the fly, analyzes the salient visual content, and records moments of personal interest in the form of compact video snippets. Accurate attentive scene detection and analysis on resource-constrained platforms is challenging because these tasks are computation and energy intensive. We propose a new temporal visual attention network that unifies human visual attention tracking and salient visual content analysis. Attention tracking focuses computation-intensive video analysis on salient regions, while video analysis makes human attention detection and tracking more accurate. Using the YouTube-VIS dataset and 30 participants, we experimentally show that MemX significantly improves the attention tracking accuracy over the eye-tracking-alone method, while maintaining high system energy efficiency. We have also conducted 11 in-field pilot studies across a range of daily usage scenarios, which demonstrate the feasibility and potential benefits of MemX.
Deep-learning-based video processing has yielded transformative results in recent years. However, the video analytics pipeline is energy-intensive due to high data rates and reliance on complex inference algorithms, which limits its adoption in energy-constrained applications. Motivated by the observation of high and variable spatial redundancy and temporal dynamics in video data streams, we design and evaluate an adaptive-resolution optimization framework to minimize the energy use of multi-task video analytics pipelines. Instead of heuristically tuning the input data resolution of individual tasks, our framework utilizes deep reinforcement learning to dynamically govern the input resolution and computation of the entire video analytics pipeline. By monitoring the impact of varying resolution on the quality of high-dimensional video analytics features, hence the accuracy of video analytics results, the proposed end-to-end optimization framework learns the best non-myopic policy for dynamically controlling the resolution of input video streams to globally optimize energy efficiency. Governed by reinforcement learning, optical flow is incorporated into the framework to minimize unnecessary spatio-temporal redundancy that leads to re-computation, while preserving accuracy. The proposed framework is applied to video instance segmentation which is one of the most challenging computer vision tasks, and achieves better energy efficiency than all baseline methods of similar accuracy on the YouTube-VIS dataset.
In collaborative filtering (CF) algorithms, the optimal models are usually learned by globally minimizing the empirical risks averaged over all the observed data. However, the global models are often obtained via a performance tradeoff among users/items, i.e., not all users/items are perfectly fitted by the global models due to the hard non-convex optimization problems in CF algorithms. Ensemble learning can address this issue by learning multiple diverse models but usually suffer from efficiency issue on large datasets or complex algorithms. In this paper, we keep the intermediate models obtained during global model learning as the snapshot models, and then adaptively combine the snapshot models for individual user-item pairs using a memory network-based method. Empirical studies on three real-world datasets show that the proposed method can extensively and significantly improve the accuracy (up to 15.9% relatively) when applied to a variety of existing collaborative filtering methods.