Pretrained language models are long known to be subpar in capturing sentence and document-level semantics. Though heavily investigated, transferring perturbation-based methods from unsupervised visual representation learning to NLP remains an unsolved problem. This is largely due to the discreteness of subword units brought by tokenization of language models, limiting small perturbations of inputs to form semantics-preserved positive pairs. In this work, we conceptualize the learning of sentence-level textual semantics as a visual representation learning process. Drawing from cognitive and linguistic sciences, we introduce an unsupervised visual sentence representation learning framework, employing visually-grounded text perturbation methods like typos and word order shuffling, resonating with human cognitive patterns, and enabling perturbation to texts to be perceived as continuous. Our approach is further bolstered by large-scale unsupervised topical alignment training and natural language inference supervision, achieving comparable performance in semantic textual similarity (STS) to existing state-of-the-art NLP methods. Additionally, we unveil our method's inherent zero-shot cross-lingual transferability and a unique leapfrogging pattern across languages during iterative training. To our knowledge, this is the first representation learning method devoid of traditional language models for understanding sentence and document semantics, marking a stride closer to human-like textual comprehension. Our code is available at https://github.com/gowitheflow-1998/Pixel-Linguist
Developing a generalist agent is a longstanding objective in artificial intelligence. Previous efforts utilizing extensive offline datasets from various tasks demonstrate remarkable performance in multitasking scenarios within Reinforcement Learning. However, these works encounter challenges in extending their capabilities to new tasks. Recent approaches integrate textual guidance or visual trajectory into decision networks to provide task-specific contextual cues, representing a promising direction. However, it is observed that relying solely on textual guidance or visual trajectory is insufficient for accurately conveying the contextual information of tasks. This paper explores enhanced forms of task guidance for agents, enabling them to comprehend gameplay instructions, thereby facilitating a "read-to-play" capability. Drawing inspiration from the success of multimodal instruction tuning in visual tasks, we treat the visual-based RL task as a long-horizon vision task and construct a set of multimodal game instructions to incorporate instruction tuning into a decision transformer. Experimental results demonstrate that incorporating multimodal game instructions significantly enhances the decision transformer's multitasking and generalization capabilities.
Multi-modal information retrieval (MMIR) is a rapidly evolving field, where significant progress, particularly in image-text pairing, has been made through advanced representation learning and cross-modality alignment research. However, current benchmarks for evaluating MMIR performance in image-text pairing within the scientific domain show a notable gap, where chart and table images described in scholarly language usually do not play a significant role. To bridge this gap, we develop a specialised scientific MMIR (SciMMIR) benchmark by leveraging open-access paper collections to extract data relevant to the scientific domain. This benchmark comprises 530K meticulously curated image-text pairs, extracted from figures and tables with detailed captions in scientific documents. We further annotate the image-text pairs with two-level subset-subcategory hierarchy annotations to facilitate a more comprehensive evaluation of the baselines. We conducted zero-shot and fine-tuning evaluations on prominent multi-modal image-captioning and visual language models, such as CLIP and BLIP. Our analysis offers critical insights for MMIR in the scientific domain, including the impact of pre-training and fine-tuning settings and the influence of the visual and textual encoders. All our data and checkpoints are publicly available at https://github.com/Wusiwei0410/SciMMIR.
As the capabilities of large multimodal models (LMMs) continue to advance, evaluating the performance of LMMs emerges as an increasing need. Additionally, there is an even larger gap in evaluating the advanced knowledge and reasoning abilities of LMMs in non-English contexts such as Chinese. We introduce CMMMU, a new Chinese Massive Multi-discipline Multimodal Understanding benchmark designed to evaluate LMMs on tasks demanding college-level subject knowledge and deliberate reasoning in a Chinese context. CMMMU is inspired by and strictly follows the annotation and analysis pattern of MMMU. CMMMU includes 12k manually collected multimodal questions from college exams, quizzes, and textbooks, covering six core disciplines: Art & Design, Business, Science, Health & Medicine, Humanities & Social Science, and Tech & Engineering, like its companion, MMMU. These questions span 30 subjects and comprise 39 highly heterogeneous image types, such as charts, diagrams, maps, tables, music sheets, and chemical structures. CMMMU focuses on complex perception and reasoning with domain-specific knowledge in the Chinese context. We evaluate 11 open-source LLMs and one proprietary GPT-4V(ision). Even GPT-4V only achieves accuracies of 42%, indicating a large space for improvement. CMMMU will boost the community to build the next-generation LMMs towards expert artificial intelligence and promote the democratization of LMMs by providing diverse language contexts.
Typically, training LLMs with long context sizes is computationally expensive, requiring extensive training hours and GPU resources. Existing long-context extension methods usually need additional training procedures to support corresponding long-context windows, where the long-context training data (e.g., 32k) is needed, and high GPU training costs are assumed. To address the aforementioned issues, we propose an Efficient and Extreme length extension method for Large Language Models, called E 2 -LLM, with only one training procedure and dramatically reduced computation cost, which also removes the need to collect long-context data. Concretely, first, the training data of our E 2 -LLM only requires a short length (e.g., 4k), which reduces the tuning cost greatly. Second, the training procedure on the short training context window is performed only once time, and we can support different evaluation context windows at inference. Third, in E 2 - LLM, based on RoPE position embeddings, we introduce two different augmentation methods on the scale and position index parameters for different samples in training. It aims to make the model more robust to the different relative differences when directly interpolating the arbitrary context length at inference. Comprehensive experimental results on multiple benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our E 2 -LLM on challenging long-context tasks.
In this paper, we introduce Kun, a novel approach for creating high-quality instruction-tuning datasets for large language models (LLMs) without relying on manual annotations. Adapting a self-training algorithm based on instruction back-translation and answer polishment, Kun leverages unlabelled data from diverse sources such as Wudao, Wanjuan, and SkyPile to generate a substantial dataset of over a million Chinese instructional data points. This approach significantly deviates from traditional methods by using a self-curation process to refine and select the most effective instruction-output pairs. Our experiments with the 6B-parameter Yi model across various benchmarks demonstrate Kun's robustness and scalability. Our method's core contributions lie in its algorithmic advancement, which enhances data retention and clarity, and its innovative data generation approach that substantially reduces the reliance on costly and time-consuming manual annotations. This methodology presents a scalable and efficient solution for improving the instruction-following capabilities of LLMs, with significant implications for their application across diverse fields. The code and dataset can be found at https://github.com/Zheng0428/COIG-Kun
We introduce TACO, an open-source, large-scale code generation dataset, with a focus on the optics of algorithms, designed to provide a more challenging training dataset and evaluation benchmark in the field of code generation models. TACO includes competition-level programming questions that are more challenging, to enhance or evaluate problem understanding and reasoning abilities in real-world programming scenarios. There are 25433 and 1000 coding problems in training and test set, as well as up to 1.55 million diverse solution answers. Moreover, each TACO problem includes several fine-grained labels such as task topics, algorithms, programming skills, and difficulty levels, providing a more precise reference for the training and evaluation of code generation models. The dataset and evaluation scripts are available on Hugging Face Hub (https://huggingface.co/datasets/BAAI/TACO) and Github (https://github.com/FlagOpen/TACO).
Reasoning, a crucial ability for complex problem-solving, plays a pivotal role in various real-world settings such as negotiation, medical diagnosis, and criminal investigation. It serves as a fundamental methodology in the field of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI). With the ongoing development of foundation models, there is a growing interest in exploring their abilities in reasoning tasks. In this paper, we introduce seminal foundation models proposed or adaptable for reasoning, highlighting the latest advancements in various reasoning tasks, methods, and benchmarks. We then delve into the potential future directions behind the emergence of reasoning abilities within foundation models. We also discuss the relevance of multimodal learning, autonomous agents, and super alignment in the context of reasoning. By discussing these future research directions, we hope to inspire researchers in their exploration of this field, stimulate further advancements in reasoning with foundation models, and contribute to the development of AGI.
In this paper, we aim to align large language models with the ever-changing, complex, and diverse human values (e.g., social norms) across time and locations. This presents a challenge to existing alignment techniques, such as supervised fine-tuning, which internalize values within model parameters. To overcome this, we propose an On-the-fly Preference Optimization (OPO) method, which is a real-time alignment that works in a streaming way. It employs an external memory to store established rules for alignment, which can constrain LLMs' behaviors without further training, allowing for convenient updates and customization of human values. We also introduce a scalable evaluation to assess the proposed method more effectively. Experimental results on both human-annotated and auto-generated questions from legal and moral domains indicate the effectiveness of the proposed OPO method. Our code and data are released at https://github.com/GAIR-NLP/OPO.