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Jinhang Zuo, Zhiyao Zhang, Xuchuang Wang, Cheng Chen, Shuai Li, John C. S. Lui, Mohammad Hajiesmaili, Adam Wierman

Cooperative multi-agent multi-armed bandits (CMA2B) consider the collaborative efforts of multiple agents in a shared multi-armed bandit game. We study latent vulnerabilities exposed by this collaboration and consider adversarial attacks on a few agents with the goal of influencing the decisions of the rest. More specifically, we study adversarial attacks on CMA2B in both homogeneous settings, where agents operate with the same arm set, and heterogeneous settings, where agents have distinct arm sets. In the homogeneous setting, we propose attack strategies that, by targeting just one agent, convince all agents to select a particular target arm $T-o(T)$ times while incurring $o(T)$ attack costs in $T$ rounds. In the heterogeneous setting, we prove that a target arm attack requires linear attack costs and propose attack strategies that can force a maximum number of agents to suffer linear regrets while incurring sublinear costs and only manipulating the observations of a few target agents. Numerical experiments validate the effectiveness of our proposed attack strategies.

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Lin Yang, Xuchuang Wang, Mohammad Hajiesmaili, Lijun Zhang, John C. S. Lui, Don Towsley

Recently, there has been extensive study of cooperative multi-agent multi-armed bandits where a set of distributed agents cooperatively play the same multi-armed bandit game. The goal is to develop bandit algorithms with the optimal group and individual regrets and low communication between agents. The prior work tackled this problem using two paradigms: leader-follower and fully distributed algorithms. Prior algorithms in both paradigms achieve the optimal group regret. The leader-follower algorithms achieve constant communication costs but fail to achieve optimal individual regrets. The state-of-the-art fully distributed algorithms achieve optimal individual regrets but fail to achieve constant communication costs. This paper presents a simple yet effective communication policy and integrates it into a learning algorithm for cooperative bandits. Our algorithm achieves the best of both paradigms: optimal individual regret and constant communication costs.

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Xuchuang Wang, Qingyun Wu, Wei Chen, John C. S. Lui

We study the multi-fidelity multi-armed bandit (MF-MAB), an extension of the canonical multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem. MF-MAB allows each arm to be pulled with different costs (fidelities) and observation accuracy. We study both the best arm identification with fixed confidence (BAI) and the regret minimization objectives. For BAI, we present (a) a cost complexity lower bound, (b) an algorithmic framework with two alternative fidelity selection procedures, and (c) both procedures' cost complexity upper bounds. From both cost complexity bounds of MF-MAB, one can recover the standard sample complexity bounds of the classic (single-fidelity) MAB. For regret minimization of MF-MAB, we propose a new regret definition, prove its problem-independent regret lower bound $\Omega(K^{1/3}\Lambda^{2/3})$ and problem-dependent lower bound $\Omega(K\log \Lambda)$, where $K$ is the number of arms and $\Lambda$ is the decision budget in terms of cost, and devise an elimination-based algorithm whose worst-cost regret upper bound matches its corresponding lower bound up to some logarithmic terms and, whose problem-dependent bound matches its corresponding lower bound in terms of $\Lambda$.

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Yu-Zhen Janice Chen, Lin Yang, Xuchuang Wang, Xutong Liu, Mohammad Hajiesmaili, John C. S. Lui, Don Towsley

This paper studies a cooperative multi-agent multi-armed stochastic bandit problem where agents operate asynchronously -- agent pull times and rates are unknown, irregular, and heterogeneous -- and face the same instance of a K-armed bandit problem. Agents can share reward information to speed up the learning process at additional communication costs. We propose ODC, an on-demand communication protocol that tailors the communication of each pair of agents based on their empirical pull times. ODC is efficient when the pull times of agents are highly heterogeneous, and its communication complexity depends on the empirical pull times of agents. ODC is a generic protocol that can be integrated into most cooperative bandit algorithms without degrading their performance. We then incorporate ODC into the natural extensions of UCB and AAE algorithms and propose two communication-efficient cooperative algorithms. Our analysis shows that both algorithms are near-optimal in regret.

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Xuchuang Wang, Hong Xie, John C. S. Lui

We generalize the multiple-play multi-armed bandits (MP-MAB) problem with a shareable arm setting, in which several plays can share the same arm. Furthermore, each shareable arm has a finite reward capacity and a ''per-load'' reward distribution, both of which are unknown to the learner. The reward from a shareable arm is load-dependent, which is the "per-load" reward multiplying either the number of plays pulling the arm, or its reward capacity when the number of plays exceeds the capacity limit. When the "per-load" reward follows a Gaussian distribution, we prove a sample complexity lower bound of learning the capacity from load-dependent rewards and also a regret lower bound of this new MP-MAB problem. We devise a capacity estimator whose sample complexity upper bound matches the lower bound in terms of reward means and capacities. We also propose an online learning algorithm to address the problem and prove its regret upper bound. This regret upper bound's first term is the same as regret lower bound's, and its second and third terms also evidently correspond to lower bound's. Extensive experiments validate our algorithm's performance and also its gain in 5G & 4G base station selection.

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Xuchuang Wang, Hong Xie, John C. S. Lui

Multi-player multi-armed bandits (MMAB) study how decentralized players cooperatively play the same multi-armed bandit so as to maximize their total cumulative rewards. Existing MMAB models mostly assume when more than one player pulls the same arm, they either have a collision and obtain zero rewards, or have no collision and gain independent rewards, both of which are usually too restrictive in practical scenarios. In this paper, we propose an MMAB with shareable resources as an extension to the collision and non-collision settings. Each shareable arm has finite shareable resources and a "per-load" reward random variable, both of which are unknown to players. The reward from a shareable arm is equal to the "per-load" reward multiplied by the minimum between the number of players pulling the arm and the arm's maximal shareable resources. We consider two types of feedback: sharing demand information (SDI) and sharing demand awareness (SDA), each of which provides different signals of resource sharing. We design the DPE-SDI and SIC-SDA algorithms to address the shareable arm problem under these two cases of feedback respectively and prove that both algorithms have logarithmic regrets that are tight in the number of rounds. We conduct simulations to validate both algorithms' performance and show their utilities in wireless networking and edge computing.

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