In longitudinal observational studies with a time-to-event outcome, a common objective in causal analysis is to estimate the causal survival curve under hypothetical intervention scenarios within the study cohort. The g-formula is a particularly useful tool for this analysis. To enhance the traditional parametric g-formula approach, we developed a more adaptable Bayesian g-formula estimator. This estimator facilitates both longitudinal predictive and causal inference. It incorporates Bayesian additive regression trees in the modeling of the time-evolving generative components, aiming to mitigate bias due to model misspecification. Specifically, we introduce a more general class of g-formulas for discrete survival data. These formulas can incorporate the longitudinal balancing scores, which serve as an effective method for dimension reduction and are vital when dealing with an expanding array of time-varying confounders. The minimum sufficient formulation of these longitudinal balancing scores is linked to the nature of treatment regimes, whether static or dynamic. For each type of treatment regime, we provide posterior sampling algorithms, which are grounded in the Bayesian additive regression trees framework. We have conducted simulation studies to illustrate the empirical performance of our proposed Bayesian g-formula estimators, and to compare them with existing parametric estimators. We further demonstrate the practical utility of our methods in real-world scenarios using data from the Yale New Haven Health System's electronic health records.
In this work, we present Vlogger, a generic AI system for generating a minute-level video blog (i.e., vlog) of user descriptions. Different from short videos with a few seconds, vlog often contains a complex storyline with diversified scenes, which is challenging for most existing video generation approaches. To break through this bottleneck, our Vlogger smartly leverages Large Language Model (LLM) as Director and decomposes a long video generation task of vlog into four key stages, where we invoke various foundation models to play the critical roles of vlog professionals, including (1) Script, (2) Actor, (3) ShowMaker, and (4) Voicer. With such a design of mimicking human beings, our Vlogger can generate vlogs through explainable cooperation of top-down planning and bottom-up shooting. Moreover, we introduce a novel video diffusion model, ShowMaker, which serves as a videographer in our Vlogger for generating the video snippet of each shooting scene. By incorporating Script and Actor attentively as textual and visual prompts, it can effectively enhance spatial-temporal coherence in the snippet. Besides, we design a concise mixed training paradigm for ShowMaker, boosting its capacity for both T2V generation and prediction. Finally, the extensive experiments show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on zero-shot T2V generation and prediction tasks. More importantly, Vlogger can generate over 5-minute vlogs from open-world descriptions, without loss of video coherence on script and actor. The code and model is all available at https://github.com/zhuangshaobin/Vlogger.
We propose a novel Latent Diffusion Transformer, namely Latte, for video generation. Latte first extracts spatio-temporal tokens from input videos and then adopts a series of Transformer blocks to model video distribution in the latent space. In order to model a substantial number of tokens extracted from videos, four efficient variants are introduced from the perspective of decomposing the spatial and temporal dimensions of input videos. To improve the quality of generated videos, we determine the best practices of Latte through rigorous experimental analysis, including video clip patch embedding, model variants, timestep-class information injection, temporal positional embedding, and learning strategies. Our comprehensive evaluation demonstrates that Latte achieves state-of-the-art performance across four standard video generation datasets, i.e., FaceForensics, SkyTimelapse, UCF101, and Taichi-HD. In addition, we extend Latte to text-to-video generation (T2V) task, where Latte achieves comparable results compared to recent T2V models. We strongly believe that Latte provides valuable insights for future research on incorporating Transformers into diffusion models for video generation.
Recently, diffusion-based image generation methods are credited for their remarkable text-to-image generation capabilities, while still facing challenges in accurately generating multilingual scene text images. To tackle this problem, we propose Diff-Text, which is a training-free scene text generation framework for any language. Our model outputs a photo-realistic image given a text of any language along with a textual description of a scene. The model leverages rendered sketch images as priors, thus arousing the potential multilingual-generation ability of the pre-trained Stable Diffusion. Based on the observation from the influence of the cross-attention map on object placement in generated images, we propose a localized attention constraint into the cross-attention layer to address the unreasonable positioning problem of scene text. Additionally, we introduce contrastive image-level prompts to further refine the position of the textual region and achieve more accurate scene text generation. Experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms the existing method in both the accuracy of text recognition and the naturalness of foreground-background blending.
Generating multiview images from a single view facilitates the rapid generation of a 3D mesh conditioned on a single image. Recent methods that introduce 3D global representation into diffusion models have shown the potential to generate consistent multiviews, but they have reduced generation speed and face challenges in maintaining generalizability and quality. To address this issue, we propose EpiDiff, a localized interactive multiview diffusion model. At the core of the proposed approach is to insert a lightweight epipolar attention block into the frozen diffusion model, leveraging epipolar constraints to enable cross-view interaction among feature maps of neighboring views. The newly initialized 3D modeling module preserves the original feature distribution of the diffusion model, exhibiting compatibility with a variety of base diffusion models. Experiments show that EpiDiff generates 16 multiview images in just 12 seconds, and it surpasses previous methods in quality evaluation metrics, including PSNR, SSIM and LPIPS. Additionally, EpiDiff can generate a more diverse distribution of views, improving the reconstruction quality from generated multiviews. Please see our project page at https://huanngzh.github.io/EpiDiff/.
Video generation has witnessed significant advancements, yet evaluating these models remains a challenge. A comprehensive evaluation benchmark for video generation is indispensable for two reasons: 1) Existing metrics do not fully align with human perceptions; 2) An ideal evaluation system should provide insights to inform future developments of video generation. To this end, we present VBench, a comprehensive benchmark suite that dissects "video generation quality" into specific, hierarchical, and disentangled dimensions, each with tailored prompts and evaluation methods. VBench has three appealing properties: 1) Comprehensive Dimensions: VBench comprises 16 dimensions in video generation (e.g., subject identity inconsistency, motion smoothness, temporal flickering, and spatial relationship, etc). The evaluation metrics with fine-grained levels reveal individual models' strengths and weaknesses. 2) Human Alignment: We also provide a dataset of human preference annotations to validate our benchmarks' alignment with human perception, for each evaluation dimension respectively. 3) Valuable Insights: We look into current models' ability across various evaluation dimensions, and various content types. We also investigate the gaps between video and image generation models. We will open-source VBench, including all prompts, evaluation methods, generated videos, and human preference annotations, and also include more video generation models in VBench to drive forward the field of video generation.
While super-resolution (SR) methods based on diffusion models exhibit promising results, their practical application is hindered by the substantial number of required inference steps. Recent methods utilize degraded images in the initial state, thereby shortening the Markov chain. Nevertheless, these solutions either rely on a precise formulation of the degradation process or still necessitate a relatively lengthy generation path (e.g., 15 iterations). To enhance inference speed, we propose a simple yet effective method for achieving single-step SR generation, named SinSR. Specifically, we first derive a deterministic sampling process from the most recent state-of-the-art (SOTA) method for accelerating diffusion-based SR. This allows the mapping between the input random noise and the generated high-resolution image to be obtained in a reduced and acceptable number of inference steps during training. We show that this deterministic mapping can be distilled into a student model that performs SR within only one inference step. Additionally, we propose a novel consistency-preserving loss to simultaneously leverage the ground-truth image during the distillation process, ensuring that the performance of the student model is not solely bound by the feature manifold of the teacher model, resulting in further performance improvement. Extensive experiments conducted on synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve comparable or even superior performance compared to both previous SOTA methods and the teacher model, in just one sampling step, resulting in a remarkable up to x10 speedup for inference. Our code will be released at https://github.com/wyf0912/SinSR
Recently video generation has achieved substantial progress with realistic results. Nevertheless, existing AI-generated videos are usually very short clips ("shot-level") depicting a single scene. To deliver a coherent long video ("story-level"), it is desirable to have creative transition and prediction effects across different clips. This paper presents a short-to-long video diffusion model, SEINE, that focuses on generative transition and prediction. The goal is to generate high-quality long videos with smooth and creative transitions between scenes and varying lengths of shot-level videos. Specifically, we propose a random-mask video diffusion model to automatically generate transitions based on textual descriptions. By providing the images of different scenes as inputs, combined with text-based control, our model generates transition videos that ensure coherence and visual quality. Furthermore, the model can be readily extended to various tasks such as image-to-video animation and autoregressive video prediction. To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of this new generative task, we propose three assessing criteria for smooth and creative transition: temporal consistency, semantic similarity, and video-text semantic alignment. Extensive experiments validate the effectiveness of our approach over existing methods for generative transition and prediction, enabling the creation of story-level long videos. Project page: https://vchitect.github.io/SEINE-project/ .
Recent works have successfully extended large-scale text-to-image models to the video domain, producing promising results but at a high computational cost and requiring a large amount of video data. In this work, we introduce ConditionVideo, a training-free approach to text-to-video generation based on the provided condition, video, and input text, by leveraging the power of off-the-shelf text-to-image generation methods (e.g., Stable Diffusion). ConditionVideo generates realistic dynamic videos from random noise or given scene videos. Our method explicitly disentangles the motion representation into condition-guided and scenery motion components. To this end, the ConditionVideo model is designed with a UNet branch and a control branch. To improve temporal coherence, we introduce sparse bi-directional spatial-temporal attention (sBiST-Attn). The 3D control network extends the conventional 2D controlnet model, aiming to strengthen conditional generation accuracy by additionally leveraging the bi-directional frames in the temporal domain. Our method exhibits superior performance in terms of frame consistency, clip score, and conditional accuracy, outperforming other compared methods.