In collaborative learning with streaming data, nodes (e.g., organizations) jointly and continuously learn a machine learning (ML) model by sharing the latest model updates computed from their latest streaming data. For the more resourceful nodes to be willing to share their model updates, they need to be fairly incentivized. This paper explores an incentive design that guarantees fairness so that nodes receive rewards commensurate to their contributions. Our approach leverages an explore-then-exploit formulation to estimate the nodes' contributions (i.e., exploration) for realizing our theoretically guaranteed fair incentives (i.e., exploitation). However, we observe a "rich get richer" phenomenon arising from the existing approaches to guarantee fairness and it discourages the participation of the less resourceful nodes. To remedy this, we additionally preserve asymptotic equality, i.e., less resourceful nodes achieve equal performance eventually to the more resourceful/"rich" nodes. We empirically demonstrate in two settings with real-world streaming data: federated online incremental learning and federated reinforcement learning, that our proposed approach outperforms existing baselines in fairness and learning performance while remaining competitive in preserving equality.
The Shapley value (SV) is adopted in various scenarios in machine learning (ML), including data valuation, agent valuation, and feature attribution, as it satisfies their fairness requirements. However, as exact SVs are infeasible to compute in practice, SV estimates are approximated instead. This approximation step raises an important question: do the SV estimates preserve the fairness guarantees of exact SVs? We observe that the fairness guarantees of exact SVs are too restrictive for SV estimates. Thus, we generalise Shapley fairness to probably approximate Shapley fairness and propose fidelity score, a metric to measure the variation of SV estimates, that determines how probable the fairness guarantees hold. Our last theoretical contribution is a novel greedy active estimation (GAE) algorithm that will maximise the lowest fidelity score and achieve a better fairness guarantee than the de facto Monte-Carlo estimation. We empirically verify GAE outperforms several existing methods in guaranteeing fairness while remaining competitive in estimation accuracy in various ML scenarios using real-world datasets.
Measuring contributions is a classical problem in cooperative game theory where the Shapley value is the most well-known solution concept. In this paper, we establish the convergence property of the Shapley value in parametric Bayesian learning games where players perform a Bayesian inference using their combined data, and the posterior-prior KL divergence is used as the characteristic function. We show that for any two players, under some regularity conditions, their difference in Shapley value converges in probability to the difference in Shapley value of a limiting game whose characteristic function is proportional to the log-determinant of the joint Fisher information. As an application, we present an online collaborative learning framework that is asymptotically Shapley-fair. Our result enables this to be achieved without any costly computations of posterior-prior KL divergences. Only a consistent estimator of the Fisher information is needed. The framework's effectiveness is demonstrated with experiments using real-world data.
Multi-slice magnetic resonance images of the fetal brain are usually contaminated by severe and arbitrary fetal and maternal motion. Hence, stable and robust motion correction is necessary to reconstruct high-resolution 3D fetal brain volume for clinical diagnosis and quantitative analysis. However, the conventional registration-based correction has a limited capture range and is insufficient for detecting relatively large motions. Here, we present a novel Affinity Fusion-based Framework for Iteratively Random Motion (AFFIRM) correction of the multi-slice fetal brain MRI. It learns the sequential motion from multiple stacks of slices and integrates the features between 2D slices and reconstructed 3D volume using affinity fusion, which resembles the iterations between slice-to-volume registration and volumetric reconstruction in the regular pipeline. The method accurately estimates the motion regardless of brain orientations and outperforms other state-of-the-art learning-based methods on the simulated motion-corrupted data, with a 48.4% reduction of mean absolute error for rotation and 61.3% for displacement. We then incorporated AFFIRM into the multi-resolution slice-to-volume registration and tested it on the real-world fetal MRI scans at different gestation stages. The results indicated that adding AFFIRM to the conventional pipeline improved the success rate of fetal brain super-resolution reconstruction from 77.2% to 91.9%.
In-utero fetal MRI is emerging as an important tool in the diagnosis and analysis of the developing human brain. Automatic segmentation of the developing fetal brain is a vital step in the quantitative analysis of prenatal neurodevelopment both in the research and clinical context. However, manual segmentation of cerebral structures is time-consuming and prone to error and inter-observer variability. Therefore, we organized the Fetal Tissue Annotation (FeTA) Challenge in 2021 in order to encourage the development of automatic segmentation algorithms on an international level. The challenge utilized FeTA Dataset, an open dataset of fetal brain MRI reconstructions segmented into seven different tissues (external cerebrospinal fluid, grey matter, white matter, ventricles, cerebellum, brainstem, deep grey matter). 20 international teams participated in this challenge, submitting a total of 21 algorithms for evaluation. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of the results from both a technical and clinical perspective. All participants relied on deep learning methods, mainly U-Nets, with some variability present in the network architecture, optimization, and image pre- and post-processing. The majority of teams used existing medical imaging deep learning frameworks. The main differences between the submissions were the fine tuning done during training, and the specific pre- and post-processing steps performed. The challenge results showed that almost all submissions performed similarly. Four of the top five teams used ensemble learning methods. However, one team's algorithm performed significantly superior to the other submissions, and consisted of an asymmetrical U-Net network architecture. This paper provides a first of its kind benchmark for future automatic multi-tissue segmentation algorithms for the developing human brain in utero.
This paper presents a novel collaborative generative modeling (CGM) framework that incentivizes collaboration among self-interested parties to contribute data to a pool for training a generative model (e.g., GAN), from which synthetic data are drawn and distributed to the parties as rewards commensurate to their contributions. Distributing synthetic data as rewards (instead of trained models or money) offers task- and model-agnostic benefits for downstream learning tasks and is less likely to violate data privacy regulation. To realize the framework, we firstly propose a data valuation function using maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) that values data based on its quantity and quality in terms of its closeness to the true data distribution and provide theoretical results guiding the kernel choice in our MMD-based data valuation function. Then, we formulate the reward scheme as a linear optimization problem that when solved, guarantees certain incentives such as fairness in the CGM framework. We devise a weighted sampling algorithm for generating synthetic data to be distributed to each party as reward such that the value of its data and the synthetic data combined matches its assigned reward value by the reward scheme. We empirically show using simulated and real-world datasets that the parties' synthetic data rewards are commensurate to their contributions.
Graph neural networks are emerging as promising methods for modeling molecular graphs, in which nodes and edges correspond to atoms and chemical bonds, respectively. Recent studies show that when 3D molecular geometries, such as bond lengths and angles, are available, molecular property prediction tasks can be made more accurate. However, computing of 3D molecular geometries requires quantum calculations that are computationally prohibitive. For example, accurate calculation of 3D geometries of a small molecule requires hours of computing time using density functional theory (DFT). Here, we propose to predict the ground-state 3D geometries from molecular graphs using machine learning methods. To make this feasible, we develop a benchmark, known as Molecule3D, that includes a dataset with precise ground-state geometries of approximately 4 million molecules derived from DFT. We also provide a set of software tools for data processing, splitting, training, and evaluation, etc. Specifically, we propose to assess the error and validity of predicted geometries using four metrics. We implement two baseline methods that either predict the pairwise distance between atoms or atom coordinates in 3D space. Experimental results show that, compared with generating 3D geometries with RDKit, our method can achieve comparable prediction accuracy but with much smaller computational costs. Our Molecule3D is available as a module of the MoleculeX software library (https://github.com/divelab/MoleculeX).
We study self-supervised learning on graphs using contrastive methods. A general scheme of prior methods is to optimize two-view representations of input graphs. In many studies, a single graph-level representation is computed as one of the contrastive objectives, capturing limited characteristics of graphs. We argue that contrasting graphs in multiple subspaces enables graph encoders to capture more abundant characteristics. To this end, we propose a group contrastive learning framework in this work. Our framework embeds the given graph into multiple subspaces, of which each representation is prompted to encode specific characteristics of graphs. To learn diverse and informative representations, we develop principled objectives that enable us to capture the relations among both intra-space and inter-space representations in groups. Under the proposed framework, we further develop an attention-based representor function to compute representations that capture different substructures of a given graph. Built upon our framework, we extend two current methods into GroupCL and GroupIG, equipped with the proposed objective. Comprehensive experimental results show our framework achieves a promising boost in performance on a variety of datasets. In addition, our qualitative results show that features generated from our representor successfully capture various specific characteristics of graphs.
Federated Learning (FL) has emerged as a promising practical framework for effective and scalable distributed machine learning. However, most existing FL or distributed learning frameworks have not addressed two important issues well together: collaborative fairness and robustness to non-contributing participants (e.g. free-riders, adversaries). In particular, all participants can receive the 'same' access to the global model, which is obviously unfair to the high-contributing participants. Furthermore, due to the lack of a safeguard mechanism, free-riders or malicious adversaries could game the system to access the global model for free or to sabotage it. By identifying the underlying similarity between these two issues, we investigate them simultaneously and propose a novel Robust and Fair Federated Learning (RFFL) framework which utilizes reputation scores to address both issues, thus ensuring the high-contributing participants are rewarded with high-performing models while the low- or non-contributing participants can be detected and removed. Furthermore, our approach differentiates itself by not requiring any auxiliary dataset for the reputation calculation. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that RFFL achieves high fairness, is robust against several types of adversaries, delivers comparable accuracy to the conventional federated framework and outperforms the Standalone framework.
Grouping has been commonly used in deep metric learning for computing diverse features. However, current methods are prone to overfitting and lack interpretability. In this work, we propose an improved and interpretable grouping method to be integrated flexibly with any metric learning framework. Our method is based on the attention mechanism with a learnable query for each group. The query is fully trainable and can capture group-specific information when combined with the diversity loss. An appealing property of our method is that it naturally lends itself interpretability. The attention scores between the learnable query and each spatial position can be interpreted as the importance of that position. We formally show that our proposed grouping method is invariant to spatial permutations of features. When used as a module in convolutional neural networks, our method leads to translational invariance. We conduct comprehensive experiments to evaluate our method. Our quantitative results indicate that the proposed method outperforms prior methods consistently and significantly across different datasets, evaluation metrics, base models, and loss functions. For the first time to the best of our knowledge, our interpretation results clearly demonstrate that the proposed method enables the learning of distinct and diverse features across groups.