Intelligent Reconfigurable Surfaces (IRS) are crucial for overcoming challenges in coverage, capacity, and energy efficiency beyond 5G (B5G). The classical IRS architecture, employing a diagonal phase shift matrix, hampers effective passive beamforming manipulation. To unlock its full potential, Beyond Diagonal IRS (BD-IRS or IRS 2.0) emerges as a revolutionary member, transcending limitations of the diagonal IRS. This paper introduces BD-IRS deployed on unmanned aerial vehicles (BD-IRS-UAV) in Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) networks. Here, users offload tasks to the MEC server due to limited resources and finite battery life. The objective is to minimize worst-case system latency by optimizing BD-IRS-UAV deployment, local and edge computational resource allocation, task segmentation, power allocation, and received beamforming vector. The resulting non-convex/non-linear NP-hard optimization problem is intricate, prompting division into two subproblems: 1) BD-IRS-UAV deployment, local and edge computational resources, and task segmentation, and 2) power allocation, received beamforming, and phase shift design. Standard optimization methods efficiently solve each subproblem. Monte Carlo simulations provide numerical results, comparing the proposed BD-IRS-UAV-enabled MEC optimization framework with various benchmarks. Performance evaluations include comparisons with fully-connected and group-connected architectures, single-connected diagonal IRS, and binary offloading, edge computation, fixed computation, and local computation frameworks. Results show a 7.25% lower latency and a 17.77% improvement in data rate with BD-IRS compared to conventional diagonal IRS systems, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed optimization framework.
Backscatter communication (BC) technology offers sustainable solutions for next-generation Internet-of-Things (IoT) networks, where devices can transmit data by reflecting and adjusting incident radio frequency signals. In parallel to BC, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has recently emerged as a promising tool to augment intelligence and optimize low-powered IoT devices. This article commences by elucidating the foundational principles underpinning BC systems, subsequently delving into the diverse array of DRL techniques and their respective practical implementations. Subsequently, it investigates potential domains and presents recent advancements in the realm of DRL-BC systems. A use case of RIS-aided non-orthogonal multiple access BC systems leveraging DRL is meticulously examined to highlight its potential. Lastly, this study identifies and investigates salient challenges and proffers prospective avenues for future research endeavors.
This paper studies the potential of RIS-integrated NTNs to revolutionize the next-generation connectivity. First, it discusses the fundamentals of RIS technology. Secondly, it delves into reporting the recent advances in RIS-enabled NTNs. Subsequently, it presents a novel framework based on the current state-of-the-art for low earth orbit satellites (LEO) communications, wherein the signal received at the user terminal traverses both a direct link and an RIS link, and the RIS is mounted on a high-altitude platform (HAP) situated within the stratosphere. Finally, the paper concludes by highlighting open challenges and future research directions to revolutionize the realm of RIS-integrated NTNs.
Device-to-device (D2D) communications offers high spectral efficiency, low energy consumption and transmission latency. However, one of the main limitations of D2D communications is co-channel interference from underlaying wireless system. Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) is a promising technology because it can manipulate the electromagnetic waves in their environment to overcome interference and enhance wireless communications. This paper considers RIS enhanced D2D communications underlaying unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) networks with non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). The objective is to maximize the sum rate of NOMA D2D communications by simultaneously optimizing the power budget of D2D transmitter, NOMA power allocation coefficients of D2D receivers and passive beamforming of RIS while guaranteeing the quality of services of UAV user. Due to non-convexity, the optimization problem is intractable and challenging to handle. Therefore, it is solved in two parts using alternating optimization. Simulation results unviel the performance of the proposed RIS enhanced D2D communications scheme. Results demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieves 15\% and 27\% higher sum rates compared to the fixed power D2D and orthogonal D2D schemes.
This paper proposes an energy-efficient RIS-assisted downlink NOMA communication for LEO satellite networks. The proposed framework simultaneously optimizes the transmit power of ground terminals of the LEO satellite and the passive beamforming of RIS while ensuring the quality of services. Due to the nature of the considered system and optimization variables, the energy efficiency maximization problem is non-convex. In practice, obtaining the optimal solution for such problems is very challenging. Therefore, we adopt alternating optimization methods to handle the joint optimization in two steps. In step 1, for any given phase shift vector, we calculate satellite transmit power towards each ground terminal using the Lagrangian dual method. Then, in step 2, given the transmit power, we design passive beamforming for RIS by solving the semi-definite programming. We also compare our solution with a benchmark framework having a fixed phase shift design and a conventional NOMA framework without involving RIS. Numerical results show that the proposed optimization framework achieves 21.47\% and 54.9\% higher energy efficiency compared to the benchmark and conventional frameworks.
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have emerged as a practical solution that provides on-demand services to users in areas where the terrestrial network is non-existent or temporarily unavailable, e.g., due to natural disasters or network congestion. In general, UAVs' user-serving capacity is typically constrained by their limited battery life and the finite communication resources that highly impact their performance. This work considers the orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) enabled multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (multi-UAV) communication systems to provide on-demand services. The main aim of this work is to derive an efficient technique for the allocation of radio resources, $3$D placement of UAVs, and user association matrices. To achieve the desired objectives, we decoupled the original joint optimization problem into two sub-problems: (i) $3$D placement and user association and (ii) sum-rate maximization for optimal radio resource allocation, which are solved iteratively. The proposed iterative algorithm is shown via numerical results to achieve fast convergence speed after fewer than 10 iterations. The benefits of the proposed design are demonstrated via superior sum-rate performance compared to existing reference designs. Moreover, results showed that the optimal power and sub-carrier allocation help to mitigate the inter-cell interference that directly impacts the system's performance.
This work considers the orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) technology that enables multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (multi-UAV) communication systems to provide on-demand services. The main aim of this work is to derive the optimal allocation of radio resources, 3D placement of UAVs, and user association matrices. To achieve the desired objectives, we decoupled the original joint optimization problem into two sub-problems: i) 3D placement and user association and ii) sum-rate maximization for optimal radio resource allocation, which are solved iteratively. The proposed iterative algorithm is shown via numerical results to achieve fast convergence speed after less than 10 iterations. The benefits of the proposed design are demonstrated via superior sum-rate performance compared to existing reference designs. Moreover, the results declared that the optimal power and sub-carrier allocation helped mitigate the co-cell interference that directly impacts the system's performance.
This paper proposes an energy-efficient RIS-enabled NOMA communication for LEO satellite networks. The proposed framework simultaneously optimizes the transmit power of ground terminals at LEO satellite and passive beamforming at RIS while ensuring the quality of services. Due to the nature of the considered system and optimization variables, the problem of energy efficiency maximization is formulated as non-convex. In practice, it is very challenging to obtain the optimal solution for such problems. Therefore, we adopt alternating optimization methods to handle the joint optimization in two steps. In step 1, for any given phase shift vector, we calculate efficient power for ground terminals at satellite using Lagrangian dual method. Then, in step 2, given the transmit power, we design passive beamforming for RIS by solving the semi-definite programming. To validate the proposed solution, numerical results are also provided to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed optimization framework.
This paper first describes the introduction of 6G-empowered V2X communications and IRS technology. Then it discusses different use case scenarios of IRS enabled V2X communications and reports recent advances in the existing literature. Next, we focus our attention on the scenario of vehicular edge computing involving IRS enabled drone communications in order to reduce vehicle computational time via optimal computational and communication resource allocation. At the end, this paper highlights current challenges and discusses future perspectives of IRS enabled V2X communications in order to improve current work and spark new ideas.
This paper proposes a cognitive radio enabled LEO SatCom using RSMA radio access technique with the coexistence of GEO SatCom network. In particular, this work aims to maximize the sum rate of LEO SatCom by simultaneously optimizing the power budget over different beams, RSMA power allocation for users over each beam, and subcarrier user assignment while restricting the interference temperature to GEO SatCom. The problem of sum rate maximization is formulated as non-convex, where the global optimal solution is challenging to obtain. Thus, an efficient solution can be obtained in three steps: first we employ a successive convex approximation technique to reduce the complexity and make the problem more tractable. Second, for any given resource block user assignment, we adopt KKT conditions to calculate the transmit power over different beams and RSMA power allocation of users over each beam. Third, using the allocated power, we design an efficient algorithm based on the greedy approach for resource block user assignment. Numerical results demonstrate the benefits of the proposed optimization scheme compared to the benchmark schemes.
* 10,9. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with