Satellite swarms have recently gained attention in the space industry due to their ability to provide extremely narrow beamwidths at a lower cost than single satellite systems. This paper proposes a concept for a satellite swarm using a distributed subarray configuration based on a 2D normal probability distribution. The swarm comprises multiple small satellites acting as subarrays of a big aperture array limited by a radius of 20000 wavelengths working at a central frequency of 19 GHz. The main advantage of this approach is that the distributed subarrays can provide extremely directive beams and beamforming capabilities that are not possible using a conventional antenna and satellite design. The proposed swarm concept is analyzed, and the simulation results show that the radiation pattern achieves a beamwidth as narrow as 0.0015-degrees with a maximum side lobe level of 18.8 dB and a grating lobe level of 14.8 dB. This concept can be used for high data rates applications or emergency systems.
Intelligent Reconfigurable Surfaces (IRS) are crucial for overcoming challenges in coverage, capacity, and energy efficiency beyond 5G (B5G). The classical IRS architecture, employing a diagonal phase shift matrix, hampers effective passive beamforming manipulation. To unlock its full potential, Beyond Diagonal IRS (BD-IRS or IRS 2.0) emerges as a revolutionary member, transcending limitations of the diagonal IRS. This paper introduces BD-IRS deployed on unmanned aerial vehicles (BD-IRS-UAV) in Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) networks. Here, users offload tasks to the MEC server due to limited resources and finite battery life. The objective is to minimize worst-case system latency by optimizing BD-IRS-UAV deployment, local and edge computational resource allocation, task segmentation, power allocation, and received beamforming vector. The resulting non-convex/non-linear NP-hard optimization problem is intricate, prompting division into two subproblems: 1) BD-IRS-UAV deployment, local and edge computational resources, and task segmentation, and 2) power allocation, received beamforming, and phase shift design. Standard optimization methods efficiently solve each subproblem. Monte Carlo simulations provide numerical results, comparing the proposed BD-IRS-UAV-enabled MEC optimization framework with various benchmarks. Performance evaluations include comparisons with fully-connected and group-connected architectures, single-connected diagonal IRS, and binary offloading, edge computation, fixed computation, and local computation frameworks. Results show a 7.25% lower latency and a 17.77% improvement in data rate with BD-IRS compared to conventional diagonal IRS systems, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed optimization framework.
Satellite communications (SatCom) are crucial for global connectivity, especially in the era of emerging technologies like 6G and narrowing the digital divide. Traditional SatCom systems struggle with efficient resource management due to static multibeam configurations, hindering quality of service (QoS) amidst dynamic traffic demands. This paper introduces an innovative solution - real-time adaptive beamforming on multibeam satellites with software-defined payloads in geostationary orbit (GEO). Utilizing a Direct Radiating Array (DRA) with circular polarization in the 17.7 - 20.2 GHz band, the paper outlines DRA design and a supervised learning-based algorithm for on-board beamforming. This adaptive approach not only meets precise beam projection needs but also dynamically adjusts beamwidth, minimizes sidelobe levels (SLL), and optimizes effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP).
Automotive radar at terahertz (THz) band has the potential to provide compact design. The availability of wide bandwidth at THz-band leads to high range resolution. Further, very narrow beamwidth arising from large arrays yields high angular resolution up to milli-degree level direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation. At THz frequencies and extremely large arrays, the signal wavefront is spherical in the near-field that renders traditional far-field DoA estimation techniques unusable. In this work, we examine near-field DoA estimation for THz automotive radar. We propose an algorithm using multiple signal classification (MUSIC) to estimate target DoAs and ranges while also taking beam-squint in near-field into account. Using an array transformation approach, we compensate for near-field beam-squint in noise subspace computations to construct the beam-squint-free MUSIC spectra. Numerical experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method to accurately estimate the target parameters.
Satellite communications, essential for modern connectivity, extend access to maritime, aeronautical, and remote areas where terrestrial networks are unfeasible. Current GEO systems distribute power and bandwidth uniformly across beams using multi-beam footprints with fractional frequency reuse. However, recent research reveals the limitations of this approach in heterogeneous traffic scenarios, leading to inefficiencies. To address this, this paper presents a machine learning (ML)-based approach to Radio Resource Management (RRM). We treat the RRM task as a regression ML problem, integrating RRM objectives and constraints into the loss function that the ML algorithm aims at minimizing. Moreover, we introduce a context-aware ML metric that evaluates the ML model's performance but also considers the impact of its resource allocation decisions on the overall performance of the communication system.
The goal of semantic communication is to surpass optimal Shannon's criterion regarding a notable problem for future communication which lies in the integration of collaborative efforts between the intelligence of the transmission source and the joint design of source coding and channel coding. The convergence of scholarly investigation and applicable products in the field of semantic communication is facilitated by the utilization of flexible structural hardware design, which is constrained by the computational capabilities of edge devices. This characteristic represents a significant benefit of joint source-channel coding (JSCC), as it enables the generation of source alphabets with diverse lengths and achieves a code rate of unity. Moreover, JSCC exhibits near-capacity performance while maintaining low complexity. Therefore, we leverage not only quasi-cyclic (QC) characteristics to propose a QC-LDPC code-based JSCC scheme but also Unequal Error Protection (UEP) to ensure the recovery of semantic importance. In this study, the feasibility for using a semantic encoder/decoder that is aware of UEP can be explored based on the existing JSCC system. This approach is aimed at protecting the significance of semantic task-oriented information. Additionally, the deployment of a JSCC system can be facilitated by employing Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes on a reconfigurable device. This is achieved by reconstructing the LDPC codes as QC-LDPC codes. The QC-LDPC layered decoding technique, which has been specifically optimized for hardware parallelism and tailored for channel decoding applications, can be suitably adapted to accommodate the JSCC system. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated by conducting BER measurements using both floating-point and 6-bit quantization.
This paper provides an overview of the diverse range of applications and use cases for Single-Channel Full-Duplex (SCFD) techniques within the field of satellite communication. SCFD, allowing simultaneous transmission and reception on a single frequency channel, presents a transformative approach to enhancing satellite communication systems. We select eight potential use cases with the objective of highlighting the substantial potential of SCFD techniques in revolutionizing SatCom across a multitude of critical domains. In addition, preliminary results from the qualitative assessment are shown. This work is carried out within the European Space Agency (ESA) ongoing activity FDSAT: Single Channel Full Duplex Techniques for Satellite Communications.
This paper delves into the application of Machine Learning (ML) techniques in the realm of 5G Non-Terrestrial Networks (5G-NTN), particularly focusing on symbol detection and equalization for the Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH). As 5G-NTN gains prominence within the 3GPP ecosystem, ML offers significant potential to enhance wireless communication performance. To investigate these possibilities, we present ML-based models trained with both synthetic and real data from a real 5G over-the-satellite testbed. Our analysis includes examining the performance of these models under various Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) scenarios and evaluating their effectiveness in symbol enhancement and channel equalization tasks. The results highlight the ML performance in controlled settings and their adaptability to real-world challenges, shedding light on the potential benefits of the application of ML in 5G-NTN.
Backscatter communication (BC) technology offers sustainable solutions for next-generation Internet-of-Things (IoT) networks, where devices can transmit data by reflecting and adjusting incident radio frequency signals. In parallel to BC, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has recently emerged as a promising tool to augment intelligence and optimize low-powered IoT devices. This article commences by elucidating the foundational principles underpinning BC systems, subsequently delving into the diverse array of DRL techniques and their respective practical implementations. Subsequently, it investigates potential domains and presents recent advancements in the realm of DRL-BC systems. A use case of RIS-aided non-orthogonal multiple access BC systems leveraging DRL is meticulously examined to highlight its potential. Lastly, this study identifies and investigates salient challenges and proffers prospective avenues for future research endeavors.
In this paper, we present a non-coherent energy detection scheme for spatial modulation (SM) systems. In particular, the use of SM is motivated by its low-complexity implementation in comparison to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, achieved through the activation of a single antenna during transmission. Moreover, energy detection-based communications restrict the channel state information to the magnitude of the fading gains. This consideration makes the design applicable for low-cost low-powered devices since phase estimation and its associated circuitry are avoided. We derive an energy detection metric for a multi-antenna receiver based on the maximum-likelihood (ML) criterion. By considering a biased pulse amplitude modulation, we develop an analytical framework for the SM symbol error rate at high signal-to-noise ratios. Numerical results show that the diversity order is proportional to half the number of receive antennas; this result stems from having partial receiver channel knowledge. In addition, we compare the performance of the proposed scheme with that of the coherent ML receiver and show that the SM energy detector outperforms its coherent counterpart in certain scenarios, particularly when utilizing non-negative constellations. Ultimately, we implement an SM testbed using software-defined radio devices and provide experimental error rate measurements that validate our theoretical contribution.