Energy-efficient sense amplifier (SA) circuits are essential for reliable detection of stored memory states in emerging memory systems. In this work, we present four novel sense amplifier (SA) topologies based on phase transition material (PTM) tailored for non-volatile memory applications. We utilize the abrupt switching and volatile hysteretic characteristics of PTMs which enables efficient and fast sensing operation in our proposed SA topologies. We provide comprehensive details of their functionality and assess how process variations impact their performance metrics. Our proposed sense amplifier topologies manifest notable performance enhancement. We achieve a ~67% reduction in sensing delay and a ~80% decrease in sensing power for current sensing. For voltage sensing, we achieve a ~75% reduction in sensing delay and a ~33% decrease in sensing power. Moreover, the proposed SA topologies exhibit improved variation robustness compared to conventional SAs. We also scrutinize the dependence of transistor mirroring window and PTM transition voltages on several device parameters to determine the optimum operating conditions and stance of tunability for each of the proposed SA topologies.
Machine/deep-learning (ML/DL) based techniques are emerging as a driving force behind many cutting-edge technologies, achieving high accuracy on computer vision workloads such as image classification and object detection. However, training these models involving large parameters is both time-consuming and energy-hogging. In this regard, several prior works have advocated for sparsity to speed up the of DL training and more so, the inference phase. This work begins with the observation that during training, sparsity in the forward and backward passes are correlated. In that context, we investigate two types of sparsity (input and output type) inherent in gradient descent-based optimization algorithms and propose a hardware micro-architecture to leverage the same. Our experimental results use five state-of-the-art CNN models on the Imagenet dataset, and show back propagation speedups in the range of 1.69$\times$ to 5.43$\times$, compared to the dense baseline execution. By exploiting sparsity in both the forward and backward passes, speedup improvements range from 1.68$\times$ to 3.30$\times$ over the sparsity-agnostic baseline execution. Our work also achieves significant reduction in training iteration time over several previously proposed dense as well as sparse accelerator based platforms, in addition to achieving order of magnitude energy efficiency improvements over GPU based execution.
CNF-based SAT and MaxSAT solvers are central to logic synthesis and verification systems. The increasing popularity of these constraint problems in electronic design automation encourages studies on different SAT problems and their properties for further computational efficiency. There has been both theoretical and practical success of modern Conflict-driven clause learning SAT solvers, which allows solving very large industrial instances in a relatively short amount of time. Recently, machine learning approaches provide a new dimension to solving this challenging problem. Neural symbolic models could serve as generic solvers that can be specialized for specific domains based on data without any changes to the structure of the model. In this work, we propose a one-shot model derived from the Transformer architecture to solve the MaxSAT problem, which is the optimization version of SAT where the goal is to satisfy the maximum number of clauses. Our model has a scale-free structure which could process varying size of instances. We use meta-path and self-attention mechanism to capture interactions among homogeneous nodes. We adopt cross-attention mechanisms on the bipartite graph to capture interactions among heterogeneous nodes. We further apply an iterative algorithm to our model to satisfy additional clauses, enabling a solution approaching that of an exact-SAT problem. The attention mechanisms leverage the parallelism for speedup. Our evaluation indicates improved speedup compared to heuristic approaches and improved completion rate compared to machine learning approaches.
The cognitive system for human action and behavior has evolved into a deep learning regime, and especially the advent of Graph Convolution Networks has transformed the field in recent years. However, previous works have mainly focused on over-parameterized and complex models based on dense graph convolution networks, resulting in low efficiency in training and inference. Meanwhile, the Transformer architecture-based model has not yet been well explored for cognitive application in human action and behavior estimation. This work proposes a novel skeleton-based human action recognition model with sparse attention on the spatial dimension and segmented linear attention on the temporal dimension of data. Our model can also process the variable length of video clips grouped as a single batch. Experiments show that our model can achieve comparable performance while utilizing much less trainable parameters and achieve high speed in training and inference. Experiments show that our model achieves 4~18x speedup and 1/7~1/15 model size compared with the baseline models at competitive accuracy.
We consider the problem of computing the k-means centers for a large high-dimensional dataset in the context of edge-based machine learning, where data sources offload machine learning computation to nearby edge servers. k-Means computation is fundamental to many data analytics, and the capability of computing provably accurate k-means centers by leveraging the computation power of the edge servers, at a low communication and computation cost to the data sources, will greatly improve the performance of these analytics. We propose to let the data sources send small summaries, generated by joint dimensionality reduction (DR) and cardinality reduction (CR), to support approximate k-means computation at reduced complexity and communication cost. By analyzing the complexity, the communication cost, and the approximation error of k-means algorithms based on state-of-the-art DR/CR methods, we show that: (i) it is possible to achieve a near-optimal approximation at a near-linear complexity and a constant or logarithmic communication cost, (ii) the order of applying DR and CR significantly affects the complexity and the communication cost, and (iii) combining DR/CR methods with a properly configured quantizer can further reduce the communication cost without compromising the other performance metrics. Our findings are validated through experiments based on real datasets.