Fine-grained estimation of galaxy merger stages from observations is a key problem useful for validation of our current theoretical understanding of galaxy formation. To this end, we demonstrate a CNN-based regression model that is able to predict, for the first time, using a single image, the merger stage relative to the first perigee passage with a median error of 38.3 million years (Myrs) over a period of 400 Myrs. This model uses no specific dynamical modeling and learns only from simulated merger events. We show that our model provides reasonable estimates on real observations, approximately matching prior estimates provided by detailed dynamical modeling. We provide a preliminary interpretability analysis of our models, and demonstrate first steps toward calibrated uncertainty estimation.
* Third Workshop on Machine Learning and the Physical Sciences (NeurIPS
2020), Vancouver, Canada
The rapid progress in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning has opened unprecedented analytics possibilities in various team and individual sports, including baseball, basketball, and tennis. More recently, AI techniques have been applied to football, due to a huge increase in data collection by professional teams, increased computational power, and advances in machine learning, with the goal of better addressing new scientific challenges involved in the analysis of both individual players' and coordinated teams' behaviors. The research challenges associated with predictive and prescriptive football analytics require new developments and progress at the intersection of statistical learning, game theory, and computer vision. In this paper, we provide an overarching perspective highlighting how the combination of these fields, in particular, forms a unique microcosm for AI research, while offering mutual benefits for professional teams, spectators, and broadcasters in the years to come. We illustrate that this duality makes football analytics a game changer of tremendous value, in terms of not only changing the game of football itself, but also in terms of what this domain can mean for the field of AI. We review the state-of-the-art and exemplify the types of analysis enabled by combining the aforementioned fields, including illustrative examples of counterfactual analysis using predictive models, and the combination of game-theoretic analysis of penalty kicks with statistical learning of player attributes. We conclude by highlighting envisioned downstream impacts, including possibilities for extensions to other sports (real and virtual).
Over half a million individuals are diagnosed with head and neck cancer each year worldwide. Radiotherapy is an important curative treatment for this disease, but it requires manually intensive delineation of radiosensitive organs at risk (OARs). This planning process can delay treatment commencement. While auto-segmentation algorithms offer a potentially time-saving solution, the challenges in defining, quantifying and achieving expert performance remain. Adopting a deep learning approach, we demonstrate a 3D U-Net architecture that achieves performance similar to experts in delineating a wide range of head and neck OARs. The model was trained on a dataset of 663 deidentified computed tomography (CT) scans acquired in routine clinical practice and segmented according to consensus OAR definitions. We demonstrate its generalisability through application to an independent test set of 24 CT scans available from The Cancer Imaging Archive collected at multiple international sites previously unseen to the model, each segmented by two independent experts and consisting of 21 OARs commonly segmented in clinical practice. With appropriate validation studies and regulatory approvals, this system could improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy pathways.
We describe the DeepMind Kinetics human action video dataset. The dataset contains 400 human action classes, with at least 400 video clips for each action. Each clip lasts around 10s and is taken from a different YouTube video. The actions are human focussed and cover a broad range of classes including human-object interactions such as playing instruments, as well as human-human interactions such as shaking hands. We describe the statistics of the dataset, how it was collected, and give some baseline performance figures for neural network architectures trained and tested for human action classification on this dataset. We also carry out a preliminary analysis of whether imbalance in the dataset leads to bias in the classifiers.