Transformers have demonstrated their success in various domains and tasks. However, Transformers struggle with long input sequences due to their limited capacity. While one solution is to increase input length, endlessly stretching the length is unrealistic. Furthermore, humans selectively remember and use only relevant information from inputs, unlike Transformers which process all raw data from start to end. We introduce Memoria, a general memory network that applies Hebbian theory which is a major theory explaining human memory formulation to enhance long-term dependencies in neural networks. Memoria stores and retrieves information called engram at multiple memory levels of working memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory, using connection weights that change according to Hebb's rule. Through experiments with popular Transformer-based models like BERT and GPT, we present that Memoria significantly improves the ability to consider long-term dependencies in various tasks. Results show that Memoria outperformed existing methodologies in sorting and language modeling, and long text classification.
* Under review as a conference paper at ICLR 2024. 20 pages, 9 figures,
Intonations take an important role in delivering the intention of the speaker. However, current end-to-end TTS systems often fail to model proper intonations. To alleviate this problem, we propose a novel, intuitive method to synthesize speech in different intonations using predefined intonation templates. Prior to the acoustic model training, speech data are automatically grouped into intonation templates by k-means clustering, according to their sentence-final F0 contour. Two proposed modules are added to the end-to-end TTS framework: intonation classifier and intonation encoder. The intonation classifier recommends a suitable intonation template to the given text. The intonation encoder, attached to the text encoder output, synthesizes speech abiding the requested intonation template. Main contributions of our paper are: (a) an easy-to-use intonation control system covering a wide range of users; (b) better performance in wrapping speech in a requested intonation with improved pitch distance and MOS; and (c) feasibility to future integration between TTS and NLP, TTS being able to utilize contextual information. Audio samples are available at https://srtts.github.io/IntoTTS.
Text-to-Speech (TTS) services that run on edge devices have many advantages compared to cloud TTS, e.g., latency and privacy issues. However, neural vocoders with a low complexity and small model footprint inevitably generate annoying sounds. This study proposes a Bunched LPCNet2, an improved LPCNet architecture that provides highly efficient performance in high-quality for cloud servers and in a low-complexity for low-resource edge devices. Single logistic distribution achieves computational efficiency, and insightful tricks reduce the model footprint while maintaining speech quality. A DualRate architecture, which generates a lower sampling rate from a prosody model, is also proposed to reduce maintenance costs. The experiments demonstrate that Bunched LPCNet2 generates satisfactory speech quality with a model footprint of 1.1MB while operating faster than real-time on a RPi 3B. Our audio samples are available at https://srtts.github.io/bunchedLPCNet2.
LPCNet is an efficient vocoder that combines linear prediction and deep neural network modules to keep the computational complexity low. In this work, we present two techniques to further reduce it's complexity, aiming for a low-cost LPCNet vocoder-based neural Text-to-Speech (TTS) System. These techniques are: 1) Sample-bunching, which allows LPCNet to generate more than one audio sample per inference; and 2) Bit-bunching, which reduces the computations in the final layer of LPCNet. With the proposed bunching techniques, LPCNet, in conjunction with a Deep Convolutional TTS (DCTTS) acoustic model, shows a 2.19x improvement over the baseline run-time when running on a mobile device, with a less than 0.1 decrease in TTS mean opinion score (MOS).