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Joohyung Lee, Heejeong Nam, Kwanhyung Lee, Sangchul Hahn

Whole-slide image (WSI) classification is a challenging task because 1) patches from WSI lack annotation, and 2) WSI possesses unnecessary variability, e.g., stain protocol. Recently, Multiple-Instance Learning (MIL) has made significant progress, allowing for classification based on slide-level, rather than patch-level, annotations. However, existing MIL methods ignore that all patches from normal slides are normal. Using this free annotation, we introduce a semi-supervision signal to de-bias the inter-slide variability and to capture the common factors of variation within normal patches. Because our method is orthogonal to the MIL algorithm, we evaluate our method on top of the recently proposed MIL algorithms and also compare the performance with other semi-supervised approaches. We evaluate our method on two public WSI datasets including Camelyon-16 and TCGA lung cancer and demonstrate that our approach significantly improves the predictive performance of existing MIL algorithms and outperforms other semi-supervised algorithms. We release our code at https://github.com/AITRICS/pathology_mil.

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Joohyung Lee, Mohamed Seif, Jungchan Cho, H. Vincent Poor

Split Federated Learning (SFL) has recently emerged as a promising distributed learning technology, leveraging the strengths of both federated learning and split learning. It emphasizes the advantages of rapid convergence while addressing privacy concerns. As a result, this innovation has received significant attention from both industry and academia. However, since the model is split at a specific layer, known as a cut layer, into both client-side and server-side models for the SFL, the choice of the cut layer in SFL can have a substantial impact on the energy consumption of clients and their privacy, as it influences the training burden and the output of the client-side models. Moreover, the design challenge of determining the cut layer is highly intricate, primarily due to the inherent heterogeneity in the computing and networking capabilities of clients. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the SFL process and conduct a thorough analysis of energy consumption and privacy. This analysis takes into account the influence of various system parameters on the cut layer selection strategy. Additionally, we provide an illustrative example of the cut layer selection, aiming to minimize the risk of clients from reconstructing the raw data at the server while sustaining energy consumption within the required energy budget, which involve trade-offs. Finally, we address open challenges in this field including their applications to 6G technology. These directions represent promising avenues for future research and development.

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Joonyoung Kim, Kangwook Lee, Haebin Shin, Hurnjoo Lee, Sechun Kang, Byunguk Choi, Dong Shin, Joohyung Lee

The more new features that are being added to smartphones, the harder it becomes for users to find them. This is because the feature names are usually short, and there are just too many to remember. In such a case, the users may want to ask contextual queries that describe the features they are looking for, but the standard term frequency-based search cannot process them. This paper presents a novel retrieval system for mobile features that accepts intuitive and contextual search queries. We trained a relevance model via contrastive learning from a pre-trained language model to perceive the contextual relevance between query embeddings and indexed mobile features. Also, to make it run efficiently on-device using minimal resources, we applied knowledge distillation to compress the model without degrading much performance. To verify the feasibility of our method, we collected test queries and conducted comparative experiments with the currently deployed search baselines. The results show that our system outperforms the others on contextual sentence queries and even on usual keyword-based queries.

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Joohyung Lee, Vladimir Lifschitz, Ravi Palla

Safe first-order formulas generalize the concept of a safe rule, which plays an important role in the design of answer set solvers. We show that any safe sentence is equivalent, in a certain sense, to the result of its grounding -- to the variable-free sentence obtained from it by replacing all quantifiers with multiple conjunctions and disjunctions. It follows that a safe sentence and the result of its grounding have the same stable models, and that the stable models of a safe sentence can be characterized by a formula of a simple syntactic form.

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Martin Gebser, Joohyung Lee, Yuliya Lierler

By introducing the concepts of a loop and a loop formula, Lin and Zhao showed that the answer sets of a nondisjunctive logic program are exactly the models of its Clark's completion that satisfy the loop formulas of all loops. Recently, Gebser and Schaub showed that the Lin-Zhao theorem remains correct even if we restrict loop formulas to a special class of loops called ``elementary loops.'' In this paper, we simplify and generalize the notion of an elementary loop, and clarify its role. We propose the notion of an elementary set, which is almost equivalent to the notion of an elementary loop for nondisjunctive programs, but is simpler, and, unlike elementary loops, can be extended to disjunctive programs without producing unintuitive results. We show that the maximal unfounded elementary sets for the ``relevant'' part of a program are exactly the minimal sets among the nonempty unfounded sets. We also present a graph-theoretic characterization of elementary sets for nondisjunctive programs, which is simpler than the one proposed in (Gebser & Schaub 2005). Unlike the case of nondisjunctive programs, we show that the problem of deciding an elementary set is coNP-complete for disjunctive programs.

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Enrico Giunchiglia, Joohyung Lee, Vladimir Lifschitz, Hudson Turner

This paper continues the line of work on representing properties of actions in nonmonotonic formalisms that stresses the distinction between being "true" and being "caused", as in the system of causal logic introduced by McCain and Turner and in the action language C proposed by Giunchiglia and Lifschitz. The only fluents directly representable in language C+ are truth-valued fluents, which is often inconvenient. We show that both causal logic and language C can be extended to allow values from arbitrary nonempty sets. Our extension of language C, called C+, also makes it possible to describe actions in terms of their attributes, which is important from the perspective of elaboration tolerance. We describe an embedding of C+ in causal theories with multi-valued constants, relate C+ to Pednault's action language ADL, and show how multi-valued constants can be eliminated in favor of Boolean constants.

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Joohyung Lee, Yunsong Meng

Recently Ferraris, Lee and Lifschitz proposed a new definition of stable models that does not refer to grounding, which applies to the syntax of arbitrary first-order sentences. We show its relation to the idea of loop formulas with variables by Chen, Lin, Wang and Zhang, and generalize their loop formulas to disjunctive programs and to arbitrary first-order sentences. We also extend the syntax of logic programs to allow explicit quantifiers, and define its semantics as a subclass of the new language of stable models by Ferraris et al. Such programs inherit from the general language the ability to handle nonmonotonic reasoning under the stable model semantics even in the absence of the unique name and the domain closure assumptions, while yielding more succinct loop formulas than the general language due to the restricted syntax. We also show certain syntactic conditions under which query answering for an extended program can be reduced to entailment checking in first-order logic, providing a way to apply first-order theorem provers to reasoning about non-Herbrand stable models.

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Michael Bartholomew, Joohyung Lee

In classical logic, nonBoolean fluents, such as the location of an object, can be naturally described by functions. However, this is not the case in answer set programs, where the values of functions are pre-defined, and nonmonotonicity of the semantics is related to minimizing the extents of predicates but has nothing to do with functions. We extend the first-order stable model semantics by Ferraris, Lee, and Lifschitz to allow intensional functions -- functions that are specified by a logic program just like predicates are specified. We show that many known properties of the stable model semantics are naturally extended to this formalism and compare it with other related approaches to incorporating intensional functions. Furthermore, we use this extension as a basis for defining Answer Set Programming Modulo Theories (ASPMT), analogous to the way that Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) is defined, allowing for SMT-like effective first-order reasoning in the context of ASP. Using SMT solving techniques involving functions, ASPMT can be applied to domains containing real numbers and alleviates the grounding problem. We show that other approaches to integrating ASP and CSP/SMT can be related to special cases of ASPMT in which functions are limited to non-intensional ones.

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Zhun Yang, Adam Ishay, Joohyung Lee

We present NeurASP, a simple extension of answer set programs by embracing neural networks. By treating the neural network output as the probability distribution over atomic facts in answer set programs, NeurASP provides a simple and effective way to integrate sub-symbolic and symbolic computation. We demonstrate how NeurASP can make use of a pre-trained neural network in symbolic computation and how it can improve the neural network's perception result by applying symbolic reasoning in answer set programming. Also, NeurASP can be used to train a neural network better by training with ASP rules so that a neural network not only learns from implicit correlations from the data but also from the explicit complex semantic constraints expressed by the rules.

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Adam Ishay, Zhun Yang, Joohyung Lee

Large language models (LLMs), such as GPT-3 and GPT-4, have demonstrated exceptional performance in various natural language processing tasks and have shown the ability to solve certain reasoning problems. However, their reasoning capabilities are limited and relatively shallow, despite the application of various prompting techniques. In contrast, formal logic is adept at handling complex reasoning, but translating natural language descriptions into formal logic is a challenging task that non-experts struggle with. This paper proposes a neuro-symbolic method that combines the strengths of large language models and answer set programming. Specifically, we employ an LLM to transform natural language descriptions of logic puzzles into answer set programs. We carefully design prompts for an LLM to convert natural language descriptions into answer set programs in a step by step manner. Surprisingly, with just a few in-context learning examples, LLMs can generate reasonably complex answer set programs. The majority of errors made are relatively simple and can be easily corrected by humans, thus enabling LLMs to effectively assist in the creation of answer set programs.

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