Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free extension: code links for papers anywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Saba Ahmadi, Aishwarya Agrawal

Recently, reference-free metrics such as CLIPScore (Hessel et al., 2021) and UMIC (Lee et al., 2021) have been proposed for automatic evaluation of image captions, demonstrating a high correlation with human judgment. In this work, our focus lies in evaluating the robustness of these metrics in scenarios that require distinguishing between two captions with high lexical overlap but very different meanings. Our findings reveal that despite their high correlation with human judgment, both CLIPScore and UMIC struggle to identify fine-grained errors in captions. However, when comparing different types of fine-grained errors, both metrics exhibit limited sensitivity to implausibility of captions and strong sensitivity to lack of sufficient visual grounding. Probing further into the visual grounding aspect, we found that both CLIPScore and UMIC are impacted by the size of image-relevant objects mentioned in the caption, and that CLIPScore is also sensitive to the number of mentions of image-relevant objects in the caption. In terms of linguistic aspects of a caption, we found that both metrics lack the ability to comprehend negation, UMIC is sensitive to caption lengths, and CLIPScore is insensitive to the structure of the sentence. We hope our findings will serve as a valuable guide towards improving reference-free evaluation in image captioning.

Via

Saba Ahmadi, Avrim Blum, Omar Montasser, Kevin Stangl

Consider patch attacks, where at test-time an adversary manipulates a test image with a patch in order to induce a targeted misclassification. We consider a recent defense to patch attacks, Patch-Cleanser (Xiang et al. [2022]). The Patch-Cleanser algorithm requires a prediction model to have a ``two-mask correctness'' property, meaning that the prediction model should correctly classify any image when any two blank masks replace portions of the image. Xiang et al. learn a prediction model to be robust to two-mask operations by augmenting the training set with pairs of masks at random locations of training images and performing empirical risk minimization (ERM) on the augmented dataset. However, in the non-realizable setting when no predictor is perfectly correct on all two-mask operations on all images, we exhibit an example where ERM fails. To overcome this challenge, we propose a different algorithm that provably learns a predictor robust to all two-mask operations using an ERM oracle, based on prior work by Feige et al. [2015]. We also extend this result to a multiple-group setting, where we can learn a predictor that achieves low robust loss on all groups simultaneously.

Via

Saba Ahmadi, Avrim Blum, Kunhe Yang

We study the problem of online binary classification where strategic agents can manipulate their observable features in predefined ways, modeled by a manipulation graph, in order to receive a positive classification. We show this setting differs in fundamental ways from non-strategic online classification. For instance, whereas in the non-strategic case, a mistake bound of $\ln|H|$ is achievable via the halving algorithm when the target function belongs to a known class $H$, we show that no deterministic algorithm can achieve a mistake bound $o(\Delta)$ in the strategic setting, where $\Delta$ is the maximum degree of the manipulation graph (even when $|H|=O(\Delta)$). We obtain an algorithm achieving mistake bound $O(\Delta\ln|H|)$. We also extend this to the agnostic setting and obtain an algorithm with a $\Delta$ multiplicative regret, and we show no deterministic algorithm can achieve $o(\Delta)$ multiplicative regret. Next, we study two randomized models based on whether the random choices are made before or after agents respond, and show they exhibit fundamental differences. In the first model, at each round the learner deterministically chooses a probability distribution over classifiers inducing expected values on each vertex (probabilities of being classified as positive), which the strategic agents respond to. We show that any learner in this model has to suffer linear regret. On the other hand, in the second model, while the adversary who selects the next agent must respond to the learner's probability distribution over classifiers, the agent then responds to the actual hypothesis classifier drawn from this distribution. Surprisingly, we show this model is more advantageous to the learner, and we design randomized algorithms that achieve sublinear regret bounds against both oblivious and adaptive adversaries.

Via

Oscar Mañas, Pau Rodriguez, Saba Ahmadi, Aida Nematzadeh, Yash Goyal, Aishwarya Agrawal

Large pre-trained models have proved to be remarkable zero- and (prompt-based) few-shot learners in unimodal vision and language tasks. We propose MAPL, a simple and parameter-efficient method that reuses frozen pre-trained unimodal models and leverages their strong generalization capabilities in multimodal vision-language (VL) settings. MAPL learns a lightweight mapping between the representation spaces of unimodal models using aligned image-text data, and can generalize to unseen VL tasks from just a few in-context examples. The small number of trainable parameters makes MAPL effective at low-data and in-domain learning. Moreover, MAPL's modularity enables easy extension to other pre-trained models. Extensive experiments on several visual question answering and image captioning benchmarks show that MAPL achieves superior or competitive performance compared to similar methods while training orders of magnitude fewer parameters. MAPL can be trained in just a few hours using modest computational resources and public datasets. We plan to release the code and pre-trained models.

Via

Saba Ahmadi, Pranjal Awasthi, Samir Khuller, Matthäus Kleindessner, Jamie Morgenstern, Pattara Sukprasert, Ali Vakilian

In this paper, we propose a natural notion of individual preference (IP) stability for clustering, which asks that every data point, on average, is closer to the points in its own cluster than to the points in any other cluster. Our notion can be motivated from several perspectives, including game theory and algorithmic fairness. We study several questions related to our proposed notion. We first show that deciding whether a given data set allows for an IP-stable clustering in general is NP-hard. As a result, we explore the design of efficient algorithms for finding IP-stable clusterings in some restricted metric spaces. We present a polytime algorithm to find a clustering satisfying exact IP-stability on the real line, and an efficient algorithm to find an IP-stable 2-clustering for a tree metric. We also consider relaxing the stability constraint, i.e., every data point should not be too far from its own cluster compared to any other cluster. For this case, we provide polytime algorithms with different guarantees. We evaluate some of our algorithms and several standard clustering approaches on real data sets.

Via

Saba Ahmadi, Hedyeh Beyhaghi, Avrim Blum, Keziah Naggita

We consider the problem of helping agents improve by setting short-term goals. Given a set of target skill levels, we assume each agent will try to improve from their initial skill level to the closest target level within reach or do nothing if no target level is within reach. We consider two models: the common improvement capacity model, where agents have the same limit on how much they can improve, and the individualized improvement capacity model, where agents have individualized limits. Our goal is to optimize the target levels for social welfare and fairness objectives, where social welfare is defined as the total amount of improvement, and fairness objectives are considered where the agents belong to different underlying populations. A key technical challenge of this problem is the non-monotonicity of social welfare in the set of target levels, i.e., adding a new target level may decrease the total amount of improvement as it may get easier for some agents to improve. This is especially challenging when considering multiple groups because optimizing target levels in isolation for each group and outputting the union may result in arbitrarily low improvement for a group, failing the fairness objective. Considering these properties, we provide algorithms for optimal and near-optimal improvement for both social welfare and fairness objectives. These algorithmic results work for both the common and individualized improvement capacity models. Furthermore, we show a placement of target levels exists that is approximately optimal for the social welfare of each group. Unlike the algorithmic results, this structural statement only holds in the common improvement capacity model, and we show counterexamples in the individualized improvement capacity model. Finally, we extend our algorithms to learning settings where we have only sample access to the initial skill levels of agents.

Via

Saba Ahmadi, Hedyeh Beyhaghi, Avrim Blum, Keziah Naggita

In this work, we consider classification of agents who can both game and improve. For example, people wishing to get a loan may be able to take some actions that increase their perceived credit-worthiness and others that also increase their true credit-worthiness. A decision-maker would like to define a classification rule with few false-positives (does not give out many bad loans) while yielding many true positives (giving out many good loans), which includes encouraging agents to improve to become true positives if possible. We consider two models for this problem, a general discrete model and a linear model, and prove algorithmic, learning, and hardness results for each. For the general discrete model, we give an efficient algorithm for the problem of maximizing the number of true positives subject to no false positives, and show how to extend this to a partial-information learning setting. We also show hardness for the problem of maximizing the number of true positives subject to a nonzero bound on the number of false positives, and that this hardness holds even for a finite-point version of our linear model. We also show that maximizing the number of true positives subject to no false positive is NP-hard in our full linear model. We additionally provide an algorithm that determines whether there exists a linear classifier that classifies all agents accurately and causes all improvable agents to become qualified, and give additional results for low-dimensional data.

Via

Saba Ahmadi, Hedyeh Beyhaghi, Avrim Blum, Keziah Naggita

The classical Perceptron algorithm provides a simple and elegant procedure for learning a linear classifier. In each step, the algorithm observes the sample's position and label and may update the current predictor accordingly. In presence of strategic agents, however, the classifier may not be able to observe the true position but a position where the agent pretends to be in order to be classified desirably. Unlike the original setting with perfect knowledge of positions, in this situation the Perceptron algorithm fails to achieve its guarantees, and we illustrate examples with the predictor oscillating between two solutions forever, never reaching a perfect classifier even though one exists. Our main contribution is providing a modified Perceptron-style algorithm which finds a classifier in presence of strategic agents with both $\ell_2$ and weighted $\ell_1$ manipulation costs. In our baseline model, knowledge of the manipulation costs is assumed. In our most general model, we relax this assumption and provide an algorithm which learns and refines both the classifier and its cost estimates to achieve good mistake bounds even when manipulation costs are unknown.

Via

Saba Ahmadi, Sainyam Galhotra, Barna Saha, Roy Schwartz

In this paper we study the problem of correlation clustering under fairness constraints. In the classic correlation clustering problem, we are given a complete graph where each edge is labeled positive or negative. The goal is to obtain a clustering of the vertices that minimizes disagreements -- the number of negative edges trapped inside a cluster plus positive edges between different clusters. We consider two variations of fairness constraint for the problem of correlation clustering where each node has a color, and the goal is to form clusters that do not over-represent vertices of any color. The first variant aims to generate clusters with minimum disagreements, where the distribution of a feature (e.g. gender) in each cluster is same as the global distribution. For the case of two colors when the desired ratio of the number of colors in each cluster is $1:p$, we get $\mathcal{O}(p^2)$-approximation algorithm. Our algorithm could be extended to the case of multiple colors. We prove this problem is NP-hard. The second variant considers relative upper and lower bounds on the number of nodes of any color in a cluster. The goal is to avoid violating upper and lower bounds corresponding to each color in each cluster while minimizing the total number of disagreements. Along with our theoretical results, we show the effectiveness of our algorithm to generate fair clusters by empirical evaluation on real world data sets.

Via

Saba Ahmadi, Faez Ahmed, John P. Dickerson, Mark Fuge, Samir Khuller

Bipartite b-matching, where agents on one side of a market are matched to one or more agents or items on the other, is a classical model that is used in myriad application areas such as healthcare, advertising, education, and general resource allocation. Traditionally, the primary goal of such models is to maximize a linear function of the constituent matches (e.g., linear social welfare maximization) subject to some constraints. Recent work has studied a new goal of balancing whole-match diversity and economic efficiency, where the objective is instead a monotone submodular function over the matching. These more general models are largely NP-hard. In this work, we develop a combinatorial algorithm that constructs provably-optimal diverse b-matchings in pseudo-polynomial time. Then, we show how to extend our algorithm to solve new variations of the diverse b-matching problem. We then compare directly, on real-world datasets, against the state-of-the-art, quadratic-programming-based approach to solving diverse b-matching problems and show that our method outperforms it in both speed and (anytime) solution quality.

Via