Large Language Models (LLMs) combined with program-based solving techniques are increasingly demonstrating proficiency in mathematical reasoning. However, such progress is mostly demonstrated in closed-source models such as OpenAI-GPT4 and Claude. In this paper, we seek to study the performance of strong open-source LLMs. Specifically, we analyze the outputs of Code Llama (7B) when applied to math word problems. We identify a category of problems that pose a challenge for the model, particularly those involving quantities that span multiple types or units. To address this issue, we propose a systematic approach by defining units for each quantity and ensuring the consistency of these units during mathematical operations. We developed Unit Consistency Programs (UCPs), an annotated dataset of math word problems, each paired with programs that contain unit specifications and unit verification routines. Finally, we finetune the Code Llama (7B) model with UCPs to produce VerityMath and present our preliminary findings.
India has a rich linguistic landscape with languages from 4 major language families spoken by over a billion people. 22 of these languages are listed in the Constitution of India (referred to as scheduled languages) are the focus of this work. Given the linguistic diversity, high-quality and accessible Machine Translation (MT) systems are essential in a country like India. Prior to this work, there was (i) no parallel training data spanning all the 22 languages, (ii) no robust benchmarks covering all these languages and containing content relevant to India, and (iii) no existing translation models which support all the 22 scheduled languages of India. In this work, we aim to address this gap by focusing on the missing pieces required for enabling wide, easy, and open access to good machine translation systems for all 22 scheduled Indian languages. We identify four key areas of improvement: curating and creating larger training datasets, creating diverse and high-quality benchmarks, training multilingual models, and releasing models with open access. Our first contribution is the release of the Bharat Parallel Corpus Collection (BPCC), the largest publicly available parallel corpora for Indic languages. BPCC contains a total of 230M bitext pairs, of which a total of 126M were newly added, including 644K manually translated sentence pairs created as part of this work. Our second contribution is the release of the first n-way parallel benchmark covering all 22 Indian languages, featuring diverse domains, Indian-origin content, and source-original test sets. Next, we present IndicTrans2, the first model to support all 22 languages, surpassing existing models on multiple existing and new benchmarks created as a part of this work. Lastly, to promote accessibility and collaboration, we release our models and associated data with permissive licenses at https://github.com/ai4bharat/IndicTrans2.
Large language models have demonstrated the capability to perform well on many NLP tasks when the input is prompted with a few examples (in-context learning) including machine translation, which is the focus of this work. The quality of translation depends on various features of the selected examples, such as their quality and relevance. However, previous work has predominantly focused on individual features for example selection. We propose a general framework for combining different features influencing example selection. We learn a regression function that selects examples based on multiple features in order to maximize the translation quality. On multiple language pairs and language models, we show that our example selection method significantly outperforms random selection as well as strong single-factor baselines reported in the literature. Using our example selection method, we see an improvement of over 2.5 COMET points on average with respect to a strong BM25 retrieval-based baseline.
This study investigates machine translation between related languages i.e., languages within the same family that share similar linguistic traits such as word order and lexical similarity. Machine translation through few-shot prompting leverages a small set of translation pair examples to generate translations for test sentences. This requires the model to learn how to generate translations while simultaneously ensuring that token ordering is maintained to produce a fluent and accurate translation. We propose that for related languages, the task of machine translation can be simplified by leveraging the monotonic alignment characteristic of such languages. We introduce a novel approach of few-shot prompting that decomposes the translation process into a sequence of word chunk translations. Through evaluations conducted on multiple related language pairs across various language families, we demonstrate that our novel approach of decomposed prompting surpasses multiple established few-shot baseline models, thereby verifying its effectiveness. For example, our model outperforms the strong few-shot prompting BLOOM model with an average improvement of 4.2 chrF++ scores across the examined languages.
Adapters have been positioned as a parameter-efficient fine-tuning (PEFT) approach, whereby a minimal number of parameters are added to the model and fine-tuned. However, adapters have not been sufficiently analyzed to understand if PEFT translates to benefits in training/deployment efficiency and maintainability/extensibility. Through extensive experiments on many adapters, tasks, and languages in supervised and cross-lingual zero-shot settings, we clearly show that for Natural Language Understanding (NLU) tasks, the parameter efficiency in adapters does not translate to efficiency gains compared to full fine-tuning of models. More precisely, adapters are relatively expensive to train and have slightly higher deployment latency. Furthermore, the maintainability/extensibility benefits of adapters can be achieved with simpler approaches like multi-task training via full fine-tuning, which also provide relatively faster training times. We, therefore, recommend that for moderately sized models for NLU tasks, practitioners should rely on full fine-tuning or multi-task training rather than using adapters. Our code is available at https://github.com/AI4Bharat/adapter-efficiency.
In multi-document summarization (MDS), the input is a cluster of documents, and the output is the cluster summary. In this paper, we focus on pretraining objectives for MDS. Specifically, we introduce a simple pretraining objective of choosing the ROUGE-based centroid of each document cluster as a proxy for its summary. Our objective thus does not require human written summaries and can be used for pretraining on a dataset containing only clusters of documents. Through zero-shot and fully supervised experiments on multiple MDS datasets, we show that our model Centrum is better or comparable to a state-of-the-art model. We release our pretrained and finetuned models at https://github.com/ratishsp/centrum.
Evaluation in machine learning is usually informed by past choices, for example which datasets or metrics to use. This standardization enables the comparison on equal footing using leaderboards, but the evaluation choices become sub-optimal as better alternatives arise. This problem is especially pertinent in natural language generation which requires ever-improving suites of datasets, metrics, and human evaluation to make definitive claims. To make following best model evaluation practices easier, we introduce GEMv2. The new version of the Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics Benchmark introduces a modular infrastructure for dataset, model, and metric developers to benefit from each others work. GEMv2 supports 40 documented datasets in 51 languages. Models for all datasets can be evaluated online and our interactive data card creation and rendering tools make it easier to add new datasets to the living benchmark.
In this paper, we present the IndicNLG suite, a collection of datasets for benchmarking Natural Language Generation (NLG) for 11 Indic languages. We focus on five diverse tasks, namely, biography generation using Wikipedia infoboxes (WikiBio), news headline generation, sentence summarization, question generation and paraphrase generation. We describe the process of creating the datasets and present statistics of the dataset, following which we train and report a variety of strong monolingual and multilingual baselines that leverage pre-trained sequence-to-sequence models and analyze the results to understand the challenges involved in Indic language NLG. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first NLG dataset for Indic languages and also the largest multilingual NLG dataset. Our methods can also be easily applied to modest-resource languages with reasonable monolingual and parallel corpora, as well as corpora containing structured data like Wikipedia. We hope this dataset spurs research in NLG on diverse languages and tasks, particularly for Indic languages. The datasets and models are publicly available at https://indicnlp.ai4bharat.org/indicnlg-suite.
We consider the task of data-to-text generation, which aims to create textual output from non-linguistic input. We focus on generating long-form text, i.e., documents with multiple paragraphs, and propose a neural model enhanced with a planning component responsible for organizing high-level information in a coherent and meaningful way. We infer latent plans sequentially with a structured variational model, while interleaving the steps of planning and generation. Text is generated by conditioning on previous variational decisions and previously generated text. Experiments on two data-to-text benchmarks (RotoWire and MLB) show that our model outperforms strong baselines and is sample efficient in the face of limited training data (e.g., a few hundred instances).