With the rise of open data, identifiability of individuals based on 3D renderings obtained from routine structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the head has become a growing privacy concern. To protect subject privacy, several algorithms have been developed to de-identify imaging data using blurring, defacing or refacing. Completely removing facial structures provides the best re-identification protection but can significantly impact post-processing steps, like brain morphometry. As an alternative, refacing methods that replace individual facial structures with generic templates have a lower effect on the geometry and intensity distribution of original scans, and are able to provide more consistent post-processing results by the price of higher re-identification risk and computational complexity. In the current study, we propose a novel method for anonymised face generation for defaced 3D T1-weighted scans based on a 3D conditional generative adversarial network. To evaluate the performance of the proposed de-identification tool, a comparative study was conducted between several existing defacing and refacing tools, with two different segmentation algorithms (FAST and Morphobox). The aim was to evaluate (i) impact on brain morphometry reproducibility, (ii) re-identification risk, (iii) balance between (i) and (ii), and (iv) the processing time. The proposed method takes 9 seconds for face generation and is suitable for recovering consistent post-processing results after defacing.
The development of automatic segmentation techniques for medical imaging tasks requires assessment metrics to fairly judge and rank such approaches on benchmarks. The Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) is a popular choice for comparing the agreement between the predicted segmentation against a ground-truth mask. However, the DSC metric has been shown to be biased to the occurrence rate of the positive class in the ground-truth, and hence should be considered in combination with other metrics. This work describes a detailed analysis of the recently proposed normalised Dice Similarity Coefficient (nDSC) for binary segmentation tasks as an adaptation of DSC which scales the precision at a fixed recall rate to tackle this bias. White matter lesion segmentation on magnetic resonance images of multiple sclerosis patients is selected as a case study task to empirically assess the suitability of nDSC. We validate the normalised DSC using two different models across 59 subject scans with a wide range of lesion loads. It is found that the nDSC is less biased than DSC with lesion load on standard white matter lesion segmentation benchmarks measured using standard rank correlation coefficients. An implementation of nDSC is made available at: https://github.com/NataliiaMolch/nDSC .
This paper focuses on the uncertainty estimation for white matter lesions (WML) segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On one side, voxel-scale segmentation errors cause the erroneous delineation of the lesions; on the other side, lesion-scale detection errors lead to wrong lesion counts. Both of these factors are clinically relevant for the assessment of multiple sclerosis patients. This work aims to compare the ability of different voxel- and lesion-scale uncertainty measures to capture errors related to segmentation and lesion detection, respectively. Our main contributions are (i) proposing new measures of lesion-scale uncertainty that do not utilise voxel-scale uncertainties; (ii) extending an error retention curves analysis framework for evaluation of lesion-scale uncertainty measures. Our results obtained on the multi-center testing set of 58 patients demonstrate that the proposed lesion-scale measure achieves the best performance among the analysed measures. All code implementations are provided at https://github.com/NataliiaMolch/MS_WML_uncs
Distributional shift, or the mismatch between training and deployment data, is a significant obstacle to the usage of machine learning in high-stakes industrial applications, such as autonomous driving and medicine. This creates a need to be able to assess how robustly ML models generalize as well as the quality of their uncertainty estimates. Standard ML baseline datasets do not allow these properties to be assessed, as the training, validation and test data are often identically distributed. Recently, a range of dedicated benchmarks have appeared, featuring both distributionally matched and shifted data. Among these benchmarks, the Shifts dataset stands out in terms of the diversity of tasks as well as the data modalities it features. While most of the benchmarks are heavily dominated by 2D image classification tasks, Shifts contains tabular weather forecasting, machine translation, and vehicle motion prediction tasks. This enables the robustness properties of models to be assessed on a diverse set of industrial-scale tasks and either universal or directly applicable task-specific conclusions to be reached. In this paper, we extend the Shifts Dataset with two datasets sourced from industrial, high-risk applications of high societal importance. Specifically, we consider the tasks of segmentation of white matter Multiple Sclerosis lesions in 3D magnetic resonance brain images and the estimation of power consumption in marine cargo vessels. Both tasks feature ubiquitous distributional shifts and a strict safety requirement due to the high cost of errors. These new datasets will allow researchers to further explore robust generalization and uncertainty estimation in new situations. In this work, we provide a description of the dataset and baseline results for both tasks.