High-quality reconstruction of controllable 3D head avatars from 2D videos is highly desirable for virtual human applications in movies, games, and telepresence. Neural implicit fields provide a powerful representation to model 3D head avatars with personalized shape, expressions, and facial parts, e.g., hair and mouth interior, that go beyond the linear 3D morphable model (3DMM). However, existing methods do not model faces with fine-scale facial features, or local control of facial parts that extrapolate asymmetric expressions from monocular videos. Further, most condition only on 3DMM parameters with poor(er) locality, and resolve local features with a global neural field. We build on part-based implicit shape models that decompose a global deformation field into local ones. Our novel formulation models multiple implicit deformation fields with local semantic rig-like control via 3DMM-based parameters, and representative facial landmarks. Further, we propose a local control loss and attention mask mechanism that promote sparsity of each learned deformation field. Our formulation renders sharper locally controllable nonlinear deformations than previous implicit monocular approaches, especially mouth interior, asymmetric expressions, and facial details.
Volumetric scene representations enable photorealistic view synthesis for static scenes and form the basis of several existing 6-DoF video techniques. However, the volume rendering procedures that drive these representations necessitate careful trade-offs in terms of quality, rendering speed, and memory efficiency. In particular, existing methods fail to simultaneously achieve real-time performance, small memory footprint, and high-quality rendering for challenging real-world scenes. To address these issues, we present HyperReel -- a novel 6-DoF video representation. The two core components of HyperReel are: (1) a ray-conditioned sample prediction network that enables high-fidelity, high frame rate rendering at high resolutions and (2) a compact and memory efficient dynamic volume representation. Our 6-DoF video pipeline achieves the best performance compared to prior and contemporary approaches in terms of visual quality with small memory requirements, while also rendering at up to 18 frames-per-second at megapixel resolution without any custom CUDA code.
Holographic near-eye displays offer unprecedented capabilities for virtual and augmented reality systems, including perceptually important focus cues. Although artificial intelligence--driven algorithms for computer-generated holography (CGH) have recently made much progress in improving the image quality and synthesis efficiency of holograms, these algorithms are not directly applicable to emerging phase-only spatial light modulators (SLM) that are extremely fast but offer phase control with very limited precision. The speed of these SLMs offers time multiplexing capabilities, essentially enabling partially-coherent holographic display modes. Here we report advances in camera-calibrated wave propagation models for these types of holographic near-eye displays and we develop a CGH framework that robustly optimizes the heavily quantized phase patterns of fast SLMs. Our framework is flexible in supporting runtime supervision with different types of content, including 2D and 2.5D RGBD images, 3D focal stacks, and 4D light fields. Using our framework, we demonstrate state-of-the-art results for all of these scenarios in simulation and experiment.
We exploit memory effect speckle correlations for the imaging of incoherent linear (single-photon) fluorescent sources behind scattering tissue. While memory effect-based imaging techniques have been heavily studied in the past, for thick scattering layers and complex illumination patterns these correlations are weak, limiting the practice applicability of the idea. In this work, we introduce a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) between the tissue sample and the imaging sensor and capture multiple modulations of the speckle pattern. We show that by correctly designing the modulation pattern and the reconstruction algorithm we can greatly enhance statistical correlations in the data. We exploit this to demonstrate the reconstruction of mega-pixel wide fluorescent patterns behind scattering tissue.
Neural networks can represent and accurately reconstruct radiance fields for static 3D scenes (e.g., NeRF). Several works extend these to dynamic scenes captured with monocular video, with promising performance. However, the monocular setting is known to be an under-constrained problem, and so methods rely on data-driven priors for reconstructing dynamic content. We replace these priors with measurements from a time-of-flight (ToF) camera, and introduce a neural representation based on an image formation model for continuous-wave ToF cameras. Instead of working with processed depth maps, we model the raw ToF sensor measurements to improve reconstruction quality and avoid issues with low reflectance regions, multi-path interference, and a sensor's limited unambiguous depth range. We show that this approach improves robustness of dynamic scene reconstruction to erroneous calibration and large motions, and discuss the benefits and limitations of integrating RGB+ToF sensors that are now available on modern smartphones.
LiDAR sensors can be used to obtain a wide range of measurement signals other than a simple 3D point cloud, and those signals can be leveraged to improve perception tasks like 3D object detection. A single laser pulse can be partially reflected by multiple objects along its path, resulting in multiple measurements called echoes. Multi-echo measurement can provide information about object contours and semi-transparent surfaces which can be used to better identify and locate objects. LiDAR can also measure surface reflectance (intensity of laser pulse return), as well as ambient light of the scene (sunlight reflected by objects). These signals are already available in commercial LiDAR devices but have not been used in most LiDAR-based detection models. We present a 3D object detection model which leverages the full spectrum of measurement signals provided by LiDAR. First, we propose a multi-signal fusion (MSF) module to combine (1) the reflectance and ambient features extracted with a 2D CNN, and (2) point cloud features extracted using a 3D graph neural network (GNN). Second, we propose a multi-echo aggregation (MEA) module to combine the information encoded in different set of echo points. Compared with traditional single echo point cloud methods, our proposed Multi-Signal LiDAR Detector (MSLiD) extracts richer context information from a wider range of sensing measurements and achieves more accurate 3D object detection. Experiments show that by incorporating the multi-modality of LiDAR, our method outperforms the state-of-the-art by up to 9.1%.
Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) imaging techniques use light that diffusely reflects off of visible surfaces (e.g., walls) to see around corners. One approach involves using pulsed lasers and ultrafast sensors to measure the travel time of multiply scattered light. Unlike existing NLOS techniques that generally require densely raster scanning points across the entirety of a relay wall, we explore a more efficient form of NLOS scanning that reduces both acquisition times and computational requirements. We propose a circular and confocal non-line-of-sight (C2NLOS) scan that involves illuminating and imaging a common point, and scanning this point in a circular path along a wall. We observe that (1) these C2NLOS measurements consist of a superposition of sinusoids, which we refer to as a transient sinogram, (2) there exists computationally efficient reconstruction procedures that transform these sinusoidal measurements into 3D positions of hidden scatterers or NLOS images of hidden objects, and (3) despite operating on an order of magnitude fewer measurements than previous approaches, these C2NLOS scans provide sufficient information about the hidden scene to solve these different NLOS imaging tasks. We show results from both simulated and real C2NLOS scans.
We describe a method for 3D human pose estimation from transient images (i.e., a 3D spatio-temporal histogram of photons) acquired by an optical non-line-of-sight (NLOS) imaging system. Our method can perceive 3D human pose by `looking around corners' through the use of light indirectly reflected by the environment. We bring together a diverse set of technologies from NLOS imaging, human pose estimation and deep reinforcement learning to construct an end-to-end data processing pipeline that converts a raw stream of photon measurements into a full 3D human pose sequence estimate. Our contributions are the design of data representation process which includes (1) a learnable inverse point spread function (PSF) to convert raw transient images into a deep feature vector; (2) a neural humanoid control policy conditioned on the transient image feature and learned from interactions with a physics simulator; and (3) a data synthesis and augmentation strategy based on depth data that can be transferred to a real-world NLOS imaging system. Our preliminary experiments suggest that our method is able to generalize to real-world NLOS measurement to estimate physically-valid 3D human poses.
Imaging objects obscured by occluders is a significant challenge for many applications. A camera that could "see around corners" could help improve navigation and mapping capabilities of autonomous vehicles or make search and rescue missions more effective. Time-resolved single-photon imaging systems have recently been demonstrated to record optical information of a scene that can lead to an estimation of the shape and reflectance of objects hidden from the line of sight of a camera. However, existing non-line-of-sight (NLOS) reconstruction algorithms have been constrained in the types of light transport effects they model for the hidden scene parts. We introduce a factored NLOS light transport representation that accounts for partial occlusions and surface normals. Based on this model, we develop a factorization approach for inverse time-resolved light transport and demonstrate high-fidelity NLOS reconstructions for challenging scenes both in simulation and with an experimental NLOS imaging system.