Self-driving software pipelines include components that are learned from a significant number of training examples, yet it remains challenging to evaluate the overall system's safety and generalization performance. Together with scaling up the real-world deployment of autonomous vehicles, it is of critical importance to automatically find simulation scenarios where the driving policies will fail. We propose a method that efficiently generates adversarial simulation scenarios for autonomous driving by solving an optimal control problem that aims to maximally perturb the policy from its nominal trajectory. Given an image-based driving policy, we show that we can inject new objects in a neural rendering representation of the deployment scene, and optimize their texture in order to generate adversarial sensor inputs to the policy. We demonstrate that adversarial scenarios discovered purely in the neural renderer (surrogate scene) can often be successfully transferred to the deployment scene, without further optimization. We demonstrate this transfer occurs both in simulated and real environments, provided the learned surrogate scene is sufficiently close to the deployment scene.
High-quality reconstruction of controllable 3D head avatars from 2D videos is highly desirable for virtual human applications in movies, games, and telepresence. Neural implicit fields provide a powerful representation to model 3D head avatars with personalized shape, expressions, and facial parts, e.g., hair and mouth interior, that go beyond the linear 3D morphable model (3DMM). However, existing methods do not model faces with fine-scale facial features, or local control of facial parts that extrapolate asymmetric expressions from monocular videos. Further, most condition only on 3DMM parameters with poor(er) locality, and resolve local features with a global neural field. We build on part-based implicit shape models that decompose a global deformation field into local ones. Our novel formulation models multiple implicit deformation fields with local semantic rig-like control via 3DMM-based parameters, and representative facial landmarks. Further, we propose a local control loss and attention mask mechanism that promote sparsity of each learned deformation field. Our formulation renders sharper locally controllable nonlinear deformations than previous implicit monocular approaches, especially mouth interior, asymmetric expressions, and facial details.