This paper introduces panoptica, a versatile and performance-optimized package designed for computing instance-wise segmentation quality metrics from 2D and 3D segmentation maps. panoptica addresses the limitations of existing metrics and provides a modular framework that complements the original intersection over union-based panoptic quality with other metrics, such as the distance metric Average Symmetric Surface Distance. The package is open-source, implemented in Python, and accompanied by comprehensive documentation and tutorials. panoptica employs a three-step metrics computation process to cover diverse use cases. The efficacy of panoptica is demonstrated on various real-world biomedical datasets, where an instance-wise evaluation is instrumental for an accurate representation of the underlying clinical task. Overall, we envision panoptica as a valuable tool facilitating in-depth evaluation of segmentation methods.
Nowadays, registration methods are typically evaluated based on sub-resolution tracking error differences. In an effort to reinfuse this evaluation process with clinical relevance, we propose to reframe image registration as a landmark detection problem. Ideally, landmark-specific detection thresholds are derived from an inter-rater analysis. To approximate this costly process, we propose to compute hit rate curves based on the distribution of errors of a sub-sample inter-rater analysis. Therefore, we suggest deriving thresholds from the error distribution using the formula: median + delta * median absolute deviation. The method promises differentiation of previously indistinguishable registration algorithms and further enables assessing the clinical significance in algorithm development.
Clinical monitoring of metastatic disease to the brain can be a laborious and time-consuming process, especially in cases involving multiple metastases when the assessment is performed manually. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Brain Metastases (RANO-BM) guideline, which utilizes the unidimensional longest diameter, is commonly used in clinical and research settings to evaluate response to therapy in patients with brain metastases. However, accurate volumetric assessment of the lesion and surrounding peri-lesional edema holds significant importance in clinical decision-making and can greatly enhance outcome prediction. The unique challenge in performing segmentations of brain metastases lies in their common occurrence as small lesions. Detection and segmentation of lesions that are smaller than 10 mm in size has not demonstrated high accuracy in prior publications. The brain metastases challenge sets itself apart from previously conducted MICCAI challenges on glioma segmentation due to the significant variability in lesion size. Unlike gliomas, which tend to be larger on presentation scans, brain metastases exhibit a wide range of sizes and tend to include small lesions. We hope that the BraTS-METS dataset and challenge will advance the field of automated brain metastasis detection and segmentation.
Pediatric tumors of the central nervous system are the most common cause of cancer-related death in children. The five-year survival rate for high-grade gliomas in children is less than 20\%. Due to their rarity, the diagnosis of these entities is often delayed, their treatment is mainly based on historic treatment concepts, and clinical trials require multi-institutional collaborations. The MICCAI Brain Tumor Segmentation (BraTS) Challenge is a landmark community benchmark event with a successful history of 12 years of resource creation for the segmentation and analysis of adult glioma. Here we present the CBTN-CONNECT-DIPGR-ASNR-MICCAI BraTS-PEDs 2023 challenge, which represents the first BraTS challenge focused on pediatric brain tumors with data acquired across multiple international consortia dedicated to pediatric neuro-oncology and clinical trials. The BraTS-PEDs 2023 challenge focuses on benchmarking the development of volumentric segmentation algorithms for pediatric brain glioma through standardized quantitative performance evaluation metrics utilized across the BraTS 2023 cluster of challenges. Models gaining knowledge from the BraTS-PEDs multi-parametric structural MRI (mpMRI) training data will be evaluated on separate validation and unseen test mpMRI dataof high-grade pediatric glioma. The CBTN-CONNECT-DIPGR-ASNR-MICCAI BraTS-PEDs 2023 challenge brings together clinicians and AI/imaging scientists to lead to faster development of automated segmentation techniques that could benefit clinical trials, and ultimately the care of children with brain tumors.
Automated brain tumor segmentation methods are well established, reaching performance levels with clear clinical utility. Most algorithms require four input magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities, typically T1-weighted images with and without contrast enhancement, T2-weighted images, and FLAIR images. However, some of these sequences are often missing in clinical practice, e.g., because of time constraints and/or image artifacts (such as patient motion). Therefore, substituting missing modalities to recover segmentation performance in these scenarios is highly desirable and necessary for the more widespread adoption of such algorithms in clinical routine. In this work, we report the set-up of the Brain MR Image Synthesis Benchmark (BraSyn), organized in conjunction with the Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) 2023. The objective of the challenge is to benchmark image synthesis methods that realistically synthesize missing MRI modalities given multiple available images to facilitate automated brain tumor segmentation pipelines. The image dataset is multi-modal and diverse, created in collaboration with various hospitals and research institutions.
A myriad of algorithms for the automatic analysis of brain MR images is available to support clinicians in their decision-making. For brain tumor patients, the image acquisition time series typically starts with a scan that is already pathological. This poses problems, as many algorithms are designed to analyze healthy brains and provide no guarantees for images featuring lesions. Examples include but are not limited to algorithms for brain anatomy parcellation, tissue segmentation, and brain extraction. To solve this dilemma, we introduce the BraTS 2023 inpainting challenge. Here, the participants' task is to explore inpainting techniques to synthesize healthy brain scans from lesioned ones. The following manuscript contains the task formulation, dataset, and submission procedure. Later it will be updated to summarize the findings of the challenge. The challenge is organized as part of the BraTS 2023 challenge hosted at the MICCAI 2023 conference in Vancouver, Canada.
Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor in adults and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Radiologists, neurosurgeons, neuro-oncologists, and radiation oncologists rely on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for diagnosis, treatment planning, and longitudinal treatment monitoring; yet automated, objective, and quantitative tools for non-invasive assessment of meningiomas on mpMRI are lacking. The BraTS meningioma 2023 challenge will provide a community standard and benchmark for state-of-the-art automated intracranial meningioma segmentation models based on the largest expert annotated multilabel meningioma mpMRI dataset to date. Challenge competitors will develop automated segmentation models to predict three distinct meningioma sub-regions on MRI including enhancing tumor, non-enhancing tumor core, and surrounding nonenhancing T2/FLAIR hyperintensity. Models will be evaluated on separate validation and held-out test datasets using standardized metrics utilized across the BraTS 2023 series of challenges including the Dice similarity coefficient and Hausdorff distance. The models developed during the course of this challenge will aid in incorporation of automated meningioma MRI segmentation into clinical practice, which will ultimately improve care of patients with meningioma.
Even though simultaneous optimization of similarity metrics represents a standard procedure in the field of semantic segmentation, surprisingly, this does not hold true for image registration. To close this unexpected gap in the literature, we investigate in a complex multi-modal 3D setting whether simultaneous optimization of registration metrics, here implemented by means of primitive summation, can benefit image registration. We evaluate two challenging datasets containing collections of pre- to post-operative and pre- to intra-operative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of glioma. Employing the proposed optimization we demonstrate improved registration accuracy in terms of Target Registration Error (TRE) on expert neuroradiologists' landmark annotations.
Machine learning models are typically evaluated by computing similarity with reference annotations and trained by maximizing similarity with such. Especially in the bio-medical domain, annotations are subjective and suffer from low inter- and intra-rater reliability. Since annotations only reflect the annotation entity's interpretation of the real world, this can lead to sub-optimal predictions even though the model achieves high similarity scores. Here, the theoretical concept of Peak Ground Truth (PGT) is introduced. PGT marks the point beyond which an increase in similarity with the reference annotation stops translating to better Real World Model Performance (RWMP). Additionally, a quantitative technique to approximate PGT by computing inter- and intra-rater reliability is proposed. Finally, three categories of PGT-aware strategies to evaluate and improve model performance are reviewed.
Human ratings are abstract representations of segmentation quality. To approximate human quality ratings on scarce expert data, we train surrogate quality estimation models. We evaluate on a complex multi-class segmentation problem, specifically glioma segmentation following the BraTS annotation protocol. The training data features quality ratings from 15 expert neuroradiologists on a scale ranging from 1 to 6 stars for various computer-generated and manual 3D annotations. Even though the networks operate on 2D images and with scarce training data, we can approximate segmentation quality within a margin of error comparable to human intra-rater reliability. Segmentation quality prediction has broad applications. While an understanding of segmentation quality is imperative for successful clinical translation of automatic segmentation quality algorithms, it can play an essential role in training new segmentation models. Due to the split-second inference times, it can be directly applied within a loss function or as a fully-automatic dataset curation mechanism in a federated learning setting.