Traditional channel-wise pruning methods by reducing network channels struggle to effectively prune efficient CNN models with depth-wise convolutional layers and certain efficient modules, such as popular inverted residual blocks. Prior depth pruning methods by reducing network depths are not suitable for pruning some efficient models due to the existence of some normalization layers. Moreover, finetuning subnet by directly removing activation layers would corrupt the original model weights, hindering the pruned model from achieving high performance. To address these issues, we propose a novel depth pruning method for efficient models. Our approach proposes a novel block pruning strategy and progressive training method for the subnet. Additionally, we extend our pruning method to vision transformer models. Experimental results demonstrate that our method consistently outperforms existing depth pruning methods across various pruning configurations. We obtained three pruned ConvNeXtV1 models with our method applying on ConvNeXtV1, which surpass most SOTA efficient models with comparable inference performance. Our method also achieves state-of-the-art pruning performance on the vision transformer model.
Understanding driving scenarios is crucial to realizing autonomous driving. Previous works such as map learning and BEV lane detection neglect the connection relationship between lane instances, and traffic elements detection tasks usually neglect the relationship with lane lines. To address these issues, the task is presented which includes 4 sub-tasks, the detection of traffic elements, the detection of lane centerlines, reasoning connection relationships among lanes, and reasoning assignment relationships between lanes and traffic elements. We present Separated RoadTopoFormer to tackle the issues, which is an end-to-end framework that detects lane centerline and traffic elements with reasoning relationships among them. We optimize each module separately to prevent interaction with each other and aggregate them together with few finetunes. For two detection heads, we adopted a DETR-like architecture to detect objects, and for the relationship head, we concat two instance features from front detectors and feed them to the classifier to obtain relationship probability. Our final submission achieves 0.445 OLS, which is competitive in both sub-task and combined scores.
Electronic health records (EHR) contain narrative notes that provide extensive details on the medical condition and management of patients. Natural language processing (NLP) of clinical notes can use observed frequencies of clinical terms as predictive features for downstream applications such as clinical decision making and patient trajectory prediction. However, due to the vast number of highly similar and related clinical concepts, a more effective modeling strategy is to represent clinical terms as semantic embeddings via representation learning and use the low dimensional embeddings as feature vectors for predictive modeling. To achieve efficient representation, fine-tuning pretrained language models with biomedical knowledge graphs may generate better embeddings for biomedical terms than those from standard language models alone. These embeddings can effectively discriminate synonymous pairs of from those that are unrelated. However, they often fail to capture different degrees of similarity or relatedness for concepts that are hierarchical in nature. To overcome this limitation, we propose HiPrBERT, a novel biomedical term representation model trained on additionally complied data that contains hierarchical structures for various biomedical terms. We modify an existing contrastive loss function to extract information from these hierarchies. Our numerical experiments demonstrate that HiPrBERT effectively learns the pair-wise distance from hierarchical information, resulting in a substantially more informative embeddings for further biomedical applications
Cross-validation is a widely used technique for evaluating the performance of prediction models. It helps avoid the optimism bias in error estimates, which can be significant for models built using complex statistical learning algorithms. However, since the cross-validation estimate is a random value dependent on observed data, it is essential to accurately quantify the uncertainty associated with the estimate. This is especially important when comparing the performance of two models using cross-validation, as one must determine whether differences in error estimates are a result of chance fluctuations. Although various methods have been developed for making inferences on cross-validation estimates, they often have many limitations, such as stringent model assumptions This paper proposes a fast bootstrap method that quickly estimates the standard error of the cross-validation estimate and produces valid confidence intervals for a population parameter measuring average model performance. Our method overcomes the computational challenge inherent in bootstrapping the cross-validation estimate by estimating the variance component within a random effects model. It is just as flexible as the cross-validation procedure itself. To showcase the effectiveness of our approach, we employ comprehensive simulations and real data analysis across three diverse applications.
Sample assignment plays a prominent part in modern object detection approaches. However, most existing methods rely on manual design to assign positive / negative samples, which do not explicitly establish the relationships between sample assignment and object detection performance. In this work, we propose a novel dynamic sample assignment scheme based on hyper-parameter search. We first define the number of positive samples assigned to each ground truth as the hyper-parameters and employ a surrogate optimization algorithm to derive the optimal choices. Then, we design a dynamic sample assignment procedure to dynamically select the optimal number of positives at each training iteration. Experiments demonstrate that the resulting HPS-Det brings improved performance over different object detection baselines. Moreover, We analyze the hyper-parameter reusability when transferring between different datasets and between different backbones for object detection, which exhibits the superiority and versatility of our method.
This paper reviews the NTIRE 2022 challenge on efficient single image super-resolution with focus on the proposed solutions and results. The task of the challenge was to super-resolve an input image with a magnification factor of $\times$4 based on pairs of low and corresponding high resolution images. The aim was to design a network for single image super-resolution that achieved improvement of efficiency measured according to several metrics including runtime, parameters, FLOPs, activations, and memory consumption while at least maintaining the PSNR of 29.00dB on DIV2K validation set. IMDN is set as the baseline for efficiency measurement. The challenge had 3 tracks including the main track (runtime), sub-track one (model complexity), and sub-track two (overall performance). In the main track, the practical runtime performance of the submissions was evaluated. The rank of the teams were determined directly by the absolute value of the average runtime on the validation set and test set. In sub-track one, the number of parameters and FLOPs were considered. And the individual rankings of the two metrics were summed up to determine a final ranking in this track. In sub-track two, all of the five metrics mentioned in the description of the challenge including runtime, parameter count, FLOPs, activations, and memory consumption were considered. Similar to sub-track one, the rankings of five metrics were summed up to determine a final ranking. The challenge had 303 registered participants, and 43 teams made valid submissions. They gauge the state-of-the-art in efficient single image super-resolution.
Recently, self-attention mechanisms have shown impressive performance in various NLP and CV tasks, which can help capture sequential characteristics and derive global information. In this work, we explore how to extend self-attention modules to better learn subtle feature embeddings for recognizing fine-grained objects, e.g., different bird species or person identities. To this end, we propose a dual cross-attention learning (DCAL) algorithm to coordinate with self-attention learning. First, we propose global-local cross-attention (GLCA) to enhance the interactions between global images and local high-response regions, which can help reinforce the spatial-wise discriminative clues for recognition. Second, we propose pair-wise cross-attention (PWCA) to establish the interactions between image pairs. PWCA can regularize the attention learning of an image by treating another image as distractor and will be removed during inference. We observe that DCAL can reduce misleading attentions and diffuse the attention response to discover more complementary parts for recognition. We conduct extensive evaluations on fine-grained visual categorization and object re-identification. Experiments demonstrate that DCAL performs on par with state-of-the-art methods and consistently improves multiple self-attention baselines, e.g., surpassing DeiT-Tiny and ViT-Base by 2.8% and 2.4% mAP on MSMT17, respectively.
Sparse R-CNN is a recent strong object detection baseline by set prediction on sparse, learnable proposal boxes and proposal features. In this work, we propose to improve Sparse R-CNN with two dynamic designs. First, Sparse R-CNN adopts a one-to-one label assignment scheme, where the Hungarian algorithm is applied to match only one positive sample for each ground truth. Such one-to-one assignment may not be optimal for the matching between the learned proposal boxes and ground truths. To address this problem, we propose dynamic label assignment (DLA) based on the optimal transport algorithm to assign increasing positive samples in the iterative training stages of Sparse R-CNN. We constrain the matching to be gradually looser in the sequential stages as the later stage produces the refined proposals with improved precision. Second, the learned proposal boxes and features remain fixed for different images in the inference process of Sparse R-CNN. Motivated by dynamic convolution, we propose dynamic proposal generation (DPG) to assemble multiple proposal experts dynamically for providing better initial proposal boxes and features for the consecutive training stages. DPG thereby can derive sample-dependent proposal boxes and features for inference. Experiments demonstrate that our method, named Dynamic Sparse R-CNN, can boost the strong Sparse R-CNN baseline with different backbones for object detection. Particularly, Dynamic Sparse R-CNN reaches the state-of-the-art 47.2% AP on the COCO 2017 validation set, surpassing Sparse R-CNN by 2.2% AP with the same ResNet-50 backbone.
In this work, we address the problem of unsupervised domain adaptation for person re-ID where annotations are available for the source domain but not for target. Previous methods typically follow a two-stage optimization pipeline, where the network is first pre-trained on source and then fine-tuned on target with pseudo labels created by feature clustering. Such methods sustain two main limitations. (1) The label noise may hinder the learning of discriminative features for recognizing target classes. (2) The domain gap may hinder knowledge transferring from source to target. We propose three types of technical schemes to alleviate these issues. First, we propose a cluster-wise contrastive learning algorithm (CCL) by iterative optimization of feature learning and cluster refinery to learn noise-tolerant representations in the unsupervised manner. Second, we adopt a progressive domain adaptation (PDA) strategy to gradually mitigate the domain gap between source and target data. Third, we propose Fourier augmentation (FA) for further maximizing the class separability of re-ID models by imposing extra constraints in the Fourier space. We observe that these proposed schemes are capable of facilitating the learning of discriminative feature representations. Experiments demonstrate that our method consistently achieves notable improvements over the state-of-the-art unsupervised re-ID methods on multiple benchmarks, e.g., surpassing MMT largely by 8.1\%, 9.9\%, 11.4\% and 11.1\% mAP on the Market-to-Duke, Duke-to-Market, Market-to-MSMT and Duke-to-MSMT tasks, respectively.