Multi-objective optimization is a type of decision making problems where multiple conflicting objectives are optimized. We study offline optimization of multi-objective policies from data collected by an existing policy. We propose a pessimistic estimator for the multi-objective policy values that can be easily plugged into existing formulas for hypervolume computation and optimized. The estimator is based on inverse propensity scores (IPS), and improves upon a naive IPS estimator in both theory and experiments. Our analysis is general, and applies beyond our IPS estimators and methods for optimizing them. The pessimistic estimator can be optimized by policy gradients and performs well in all of our experiments.
Meta-forecasting is a newly emerging field which combines meta-learning and time series forecasting. The goal of meta-forecasting is to train over a collection of source time series and generalize to new time series one-at-a-time. Previous approaches in meta-forecasting achieve competitive performance, but with the restriction of training a separate model for each sampling frequency. In this work, we investigate meta-forecasting over different sampling frequencies, and introduce a new model, the Continuous Frequency Adapter (CFA), specifically designed to learn frequency-invariant representations. We find that CFA greatly improves performance when generalizing to unseen frequencies, providing a first step towards forecasting over larger multi-frequency datasets.
Transformer-based models have gained large popularity and demonstrated promising results in long-term time-series forecasting in recent years. In addition to learning attention in time domain, recent works also explore learning attention in frequency domains (e.g., Fourier domain, wavelet domain), given that seasonal patterns can be better captured in these domains. In this work, we seek to understand the relationships between attention models in different time and frequency domains. Theoretically, we show that attention models in different domains are equivalent under linear conditions (i.e., linear kernel to attention scores). Empirically, we analyze how attention models of different domains show different behaviors through various synthetic experiments with seasonality, trend and noise, with emphasis on the role of softmax operation therein. Both these theoretical and empirical analyses motivate us to propose a new method: TDformer (Trend Decomposition Transformer), that first applies seasonal-trend decomposition, and then additively combines an MLP which predicts the trend component with Fourier attention which predicts the seasonal component to obtain the final prediction. Extensive experiments on benchmark time-series forecasting datasets demonstrate that TDformer achieves state-of-the-art performance against existing attention-based models.