Modern machine learning methods and the availability of large-scale data opened the door to accurately predict target quantities from large sets of covariates. However, existing prediction methods can perform poorly when the training and testing data are different, especially in the presence of hidden confounding. While hidden confounding is well studied for causal effect estimation (e.g., instrumental variables), this is not the case for prediction tasks. This work aims to bridge this gap by addressing predictions under different training and testing distributions in the presence of unobserved confounding. In particular, we establish a novel connection between the field of distribution generalization from machine learning, and simultaneous equation models and control function from econometrics. Central to our contribution are simultaneous equation models for distribution generalization (SIMDGs) which describe the data-generating process under a set of distributional shifts. Within this framework, we propose a strong notion of invariance for a predictive model and compare it with existing (weaker) versions. Building on the control function approach from instrumental variable regression, we propose the boosted control function (BCF) as a target of inference and prove its ability to successfully predict even in intervened versions of the underlying SIMDG. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for identifying the BCF and show that it is worst-case optimal. We introduce the ControlTwicing algorithm to estimate the BCF and analyze its predictive performance on simulated and real world data.
The premise of identifiable and causal representation learning is to improve the current representation learning paradigm in terms of generalizability or robustness. Despite recent progress in questions of identifiability, more theoretical results demonstrating concrete advantages of these methods for downstream tasks are needed. In this paper, we consider the task of intervention extrapolation: predicting how interventions affect an outcome, even when those interventions are not observed at training time, and show that identifiable representations can provide an effective solution to this task even if the interventions affect the outcome non-linearly. Our setup includes an outcome Y, observed features X, which are generated as a non-linear transformation of latent features Z, and exogenous action variables A, which influence Z. The objective of intervention extrapolation is to predict how interventions on A that lie outside the training support of A affect Y. Here, extrapolation becomes possible if the effect of A on Z is linear and the residual when regressing Z on A has full support. As Z is latent, we combine the task of intervention extrapolation with identifiable representation learning, which we call Rep4Ex: we aim to map the observed features X into a subspace that allows for non-linear extrapolation in A. We show using Wiener's Tauberian theorem that the hidden representation is identifiable up to an affine transformation in Z-space, which is sufficient for intervention extrapolation. The identifiability is characterized by a novel constraint describing the linearity assumption of A on Z. Based on this insight, we propose a method that enforces the linear invariance constraint and can be combined with any type of autoencoder. We validate our theoretical findings through synthetic experiments and show that our approach succeeds in predicting the effects of unseen interventions.
Discovering causal relationships from observational data is a fundamental yet challenging task. In some applications, it may suffice to learn the causal features of a given response variable, instead of learning the entire underlying causal structure. Invariant causal prediction (ICP, Peters et al., 2016) is a method for causal feature selection which requires data from heterogeneous settings. ICP assumes that the mechanism for generating the response from its direct causes is the same in all settings and exploits this invariance to output a subset of the causal features. The framework of ICP has been extended to general additive noise models and to nonparametric settings using conditional independence testing. However, nonparametric conditional independence testing often suffers from low power (or poor type I error control) and the aforementioned parametric models are not suitable for applications in which the response is not measured on a continuous scale, but rather reflects categories or counts. To bridge this gap, we develop ICP in the context of transformation models (TRAMs), allowing for continuous, categorical, count-type, and uninformatively censored responses (we show that, in general, these model classes do not allow for identifiability when there is no exogenous heterogeneity). We propose TRAM-GCM, a test for invariance of a subset of covariates, based on the expected conditional covariance between environments and score residuals which satisfies uniform asymptotic level guarantees. For the special case of linear shift TRAMs, we propose an additional invariance test, TRAM-Wald, based on the Wald statistic. We implement both proposed methods in the open-source R package "tramicp" and show in simulations that under the correct model specification, our approach empirically yields higher power than nonparametric ICP based on conditional independence testing.
Policy learning is an important component of many real-world learning systems. A major challenge in policy learning is how to adapt efficiently to unseen environments or tasks. Recently, it has been suggested to exploit invariant conditional distributions to learn models that generalize better to unseen environments. However, assuming invariance of entire conditional distributions (which we call full invariance) may be too strong of an assumption in practice. In this paper, we introduce a relaxation of full invariance called effect-invariance (e-invariance for short) and prove that it is sufficient, under suitable assumptions, for zero-shot policy generalization. We also discuss an extension that exploits e-invariance when we have a small sample from the test environment, enabling few-shot policy generalization. Our work does not assume an underlying causal graph or that the data are generated by a structural causal model; instead, we develop testing procedures to test e-invariance directly from data. We present empirical results using simulated data and a mobile health intervention dataset to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
Many fairness criteria constrain the policy or choice of predictors. In this work, we propose a different framework for thinking about fairness: Instead of constraining the policy or choice of predictors, we consider which utility a policy is optimizing for. We define value of information fairness and propose to not use utilities that do not satisfy this criterion. We describe how to modify a utility to satisfy this fairness criterion and discuss the consequences this might have on the corresponding optimal policies.
Exogenous heterogeneity, for example, in the form of instrumental variables can help us learn a system's underlying causal structure and predict the outcome of unseen intervention experiments. In this paper, we consider linear models in which the causal effect from covariates $X$ on a response $Y$ is sparse. We provide conditions under which the causal coefficient becomes identifiable from the observed distribution. These conditions can be satisfied even if the number of instruments is as small as the number of causal parents. We also develop graphical criteria under which identifiability holds with probability one if the edge coefficients are sampled randomly from a distribution that is absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue measure and $Y$ is childless. As an estimator, we propose spaceIV and prove that it consistently estimates the causal effect if the model is identifiable and evaluate its performance on simulated data. If identifiability does not hold, we show that it may still be possible to recover a subset of the causal parents.
Instrumental variable (IV) regression relies on instruments to infer causal effects from observational data with unobserved confounding. We consider IV regression in time series models, such as vector auto-regressive (VAR) processes. Direct applications of i.i.d. techniques are generally inconsistent as they do not correctly adjust for dependencies in the past. In this paper, we propose methodology for constructing identifying equations that can be used for consistently estimating causal effects. To do so, we develop nuisance IV, which can be of interest even in the i.i.d. case, as it generalizes existing IV methods. We further propose a graph marginalization framework that allows us to apply nuisance and other IV methods in a principled way to time series. Our framework builds on the global Markov property, which we prove holds for VAR processes. For VAR(1) processes, we prove identifiability conditions that relate to Jordan forms and are different from the well-known rank conditions in the i.i.d. case (they do not require as many instruments as covariates, for example). We provide methods, prove their consistency, and show how the inferred causal effect can be used for distribution generalization. Simulation experiments corroborate our theoretical results. We provide ready-to-use Python code.
Questions in causality, control, and reinforcement learning go beyond the classical machine learning task of prediction under i.i.d. observations. Instead, these fields consider the problem of learning how to actively perturb a system to achieve a certain effect on a response variable. Arguably, they have complementary views on the problem: In control, one usually aims to first identify the system by excitation strategies to then apply model-based design techniques to control the system. In (non-model-based) reinforcement learning, one directly optimizes a reward. In causality, one focus is on identifiability of causal structure. We believe that combining the different views might create synergies and this competition is meant as a first step toward such synergies. The participants had access to observational and (offline) interventional data generated by dynamical systems. Track CHEM considers an open-loop problem in which a single impulse at the beginning of the dynamics can be set, while Track ROBO considers a closed-loop problem in which control variables can be set at each time step. The goal in both tracks is to infer controls that drive the system to a desired state. Code is open-sourced ( https://github.com/LearningByDoingCompetition/learningbydoing-comp ) to reproduce the winning solutions of the competition and to facilitate trying out new methods on the competition tasks.
Instrumental variable models allow us to identify a causal function between covariates X and a response Y, even in the presence of unobserved confounding. Most of the existing estimators assume that the error term in the response Y and the hidden confounders are uncorrelated with the instruments Z. This is often motivated by a graphical separation, an argument that also justifies independence. Posing an independence condition, however, leads to strictly stronger identifiability results. We connect to existing literature in econometrics and provide a practical method for exploiting independence that can be combined with any gradient-based learning procedure. We see that even in identifiable settings, taking into account higher moments may yield better finite sample results. Furthermore, we exploit the independence for distribution generalization. We prove that the proposed estimator is invariant to distributional shifts on the instruments and worst-case optimal whenever these shifts are sufficiently strong. These results hold even in the under-identified case where the instruments are not sufficiently rich to identify the causal function.