Automated crop-type classification using Sentinel-2 satellite time series is essential to support agriculture monitoring. Recently, deep learning models based on transformer encoders became a promising approach for crop-type classification. Using explainable machine learning to reveal the inner workings of these models is an important step towards improving stakeholders' trust and efficient agriculture monitoring. In this paper, we introduce a novel explainability framework that aims to shed a light on the essential crop disambiguation patterns learned by a state-of-the-art transformer encoder model. More specifically, we process the attention weights of a trained transformer encoder to reveal the critical dates for crop disambiguation and use domain knowledge to uncover the phenological events that support the model performance. We also present a sensitivity analysis approach to understand better the attention capability for revealing crop-specific phenological events. We report compelling results showing that attention patterns strongly relate to key dates, and consequently, to the critical phenological events for crop-type classification. These findings might be relevant for improving stakeholder trust and optimizing agriculture monitoring processes. Additionally, our sensitivity analysis demonstrates the limitation of attention weights for identifying the important events in the crop phenology as we empirically show that the unveiled phenological events depend on the other crops in the data considered during training.