We present Ego-Exo4D, a diverse, large-scale multimodal multiview video dataset and benchmark challenge. Ego-Exo4D centers around simultaneously-captured egocentric and exocentric video of skilled human activities (e.g., sports, music, dance, bike repair). More than 800 participants from 13 cities worldwide performed these activities in 131 different natural scene contexts, yielding long-form captures from 1 to 42 minutes each and 1,422 hours of video combined. The multimodal nature of the dataset is unprecedented: the video is accompanied by multichannel audio, eye gaze, 3D point clouds, camera poses, IMU, and multiple paired language descriptions -- including a novel "expert commentary" done by coaches and teachers and tailored to the skilled-activity domain. To push the frontier of first-person video understanding of skilled human activity, we also present a suite of benchmark tasks and their annotations, including fine-grained activity understanding, proficiency estimation, cross-view translation, and 3D hand/body pose. All resources will be open sourced to fuel new research in the community.
ENIGMA-51 is a new egocentric dataset acquired in a real industrial domain by 19 subjects who followed instructions to complete the repair of electrical boards using industrial tools (e.g., electric screwdriver) and electronic instruments (e.g., oscilloscope). The 51 sequences are densely annotated with a rich set of labels that enable the systematic study of human-object interactions in the industrial domain. We provide benchmarks on four tasks related to human-object interactions: 1) untrimmed action detection, 2) egocentric human-object interaction detection, 3) short-term object interaction anticipation and 4) natural language understanding of intents and entities. Baseline results show that the ENIGMA-51 dataset poses a challenging benchmark to study human-object interactions in industrial scenarios. We publicly release the dataset at: https://iplab.dmi.unict.it/ENIGMA-51/.
What will the future be? We wonder! In this survey, we explore the gap between current research in egocentric vision and the ever-anticipated future, where wearable computing, with outward facing cameras and digital overlays, is expected to be integrated in our every day lives. To understand this gap, the article starts by envisaging the future through character-based stories, showcasing through examples the limitations of current technology. We then provide a mapping between this future and previously defined research tasks. For each task, we survey its seminal works, current state-of-the-art methodologies and available datasets, then reflect on shortcomings that limit its applicability to future research. Note that this survey focuses on software models for egocentric vision, independent of any specific hardware. The paper concludes with recommendations for areas of immediate explorations so as to unlock our path to the future always-on, personalised and life-enhancing egocentric vision.
Egocentric action anticipation aims to predict the future actions the camera wearer will perform from the observation of the past. While predictions about the future should be available before the predicted events take place, most approaches do not pay attention to the computational time required to make such predictions. As a result, current evaluation schemes assume that predictions are available right after the input video is observed, i.e., presuming a negligible runtime, which may lead to overly optimistic evaluations. We propose a streaming egocentric action evaluation scheme which assumes that predictions are performed online and made available only after the model has processed the current input segment, which depends on its runtime. To evaluate all models considering the same prediction horizon, we hence propose that slower models should base their predictions on temporal segments sampled ahead of time. Based on the observation that model runtime can affect performance in the considered streaming evaluation scenario, we further propose a lightweight action anticipation model based on feed-forward 3D CNNs which is optimized using knowledge distillation techniques with a novel past-to-future distillation loss. Experiments on the three popular datasets EPIC-KITCHENS-55, EPIC-KITCHENS-100 and EGTEA Gaze+ show that (i) the proposed evaluation scheme induces a different ranking on state-of-the-art methods as compared to classic evaluations, (ii) lightweight approaches tend to outmatch more computationally expensive ones, and (iii) the proposed model based on feed-forward 3D CNNs and knowledge distillation outperforms current art in the streaming egocentric action anticipation scenario.
In this paper, we tackle the problem of Egocentric Human-Object Interaction (EHOI) detection in an industrial setting. To overcome the lack of public datasets in this context, we propose a pipeline and a tool for generating synthetic images of EHOIs paired with several annotations and data signals (e.g., depth maps or instance segmentation masks). Using the proposed pipeline, we present EgoISM-HOI a new multimodal dataset composed of synthetic EHOI images in an industrial environment with rich annotations of hands and objects. To demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of synthetic EHOI data produced by the proposed tool, we designed a new method that predicts and combines different multimodal signals to detect EHOIs in RGB images. Our study shows that exploiting synthetic data to pre-train the proposed method significantly improves performance when tested on real-world data. Moreover, the proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art class-agnostic methods. To support research in this field, we publicly release the datasets, source code, and pre-trained models at https://iplab.dmi.unict.it/egoism-hoi.
Anticipation problem has been studied considering different aspects such as predicting humans' locations, predicting hands and objects trajectories, and forecasting actions and human-object interactions. In this paper, we studied the short-term object interaction anticipation problem from the egocentric point of view, proposing a new end-to-end architecture named StillFast. Our approach simultaneously processes a still image and a video detecting and localizing next-active objects, predicting the verb which describes the future interaction and determining when the interaction will start. Experiments on the large-scale egocentric dataset EGO4D show that our method outperformed state-of-the-art approaches on the considered task. Our method is ranked first in the public leaderboard of the EGO4D short term object interaction anticipation challenge 2022. Please see the project web page for code and additional details: https://iplab.dmi.unict.it/stillfast/.
Object detection algorithms allow to enable many interesting applications which can be implemented in different devices, such as smartphones and wearable devices. In the context of a cultural site, implementing these algorithms in a wearable device, such as a pair of smart glasses, allow to enable the use of augmented reality (AR) to show extra information about the artworks and enrich the visitors' experience during their tour. However, object detection algorithms require to be trained on many well annotated examples to achieve reasonable results. This brings a major limitation since the annotation process requires human supervision which makes it expensive in terms of time and costs. A possible solution to reduce these costs consist in exploiting tools to automatically generate synthetic labeled images from a 3D model of the site. However, models trained with synthetic data do not generalize on real images acquired in the target scenario in which they are supposed to be used. Furthermore, object detectors should be able to work with different wearable devices or different mobile devices, which makes generalization even harder. In this paper, we present a new dataset collected in a cultural site to study the problem of domain adaptation for object detection in the presence of multiple unlabeled target domains corresponding to different cameras and a labeled source domain obtained considering synthetic images for training purposes. We present a new domain adaptation method which outperforms current state-of-the-art approaches combining the benefits of aligning the domains at the feature and pixel level with a self-training process. We release the dataset at the following link https://iplab.dmi.unict.it/OBJ-MDA/ and the code of the proposed architecture at https://github.com/fpv-iplab/STMDA-RetinaNet.
The understanding of human-object interactions is fundamental in First Person Vision (FPV). Visual tracking algorithms which follow the objects manipulated by the camera wearer can provide useful information to effectively model such interactions. In the last years, the computer vision community has significantly improved the performance of tracking algorithms for a large variety of target objects and scenarios. Despite a few previous attempts to exploit trackers in the FPV domain, a methodical analysis of the performance of state-of-the-art trackers is still missing. This research gap raises the question of whether current solutions can be used ``off-the-shelf'' or more domain-specific investigations should be carried out. This paper aims to provide answers to such questions. We present the first systematic investigation of single object tracking in FPV. Our study extensively analyses the performance of 42 algorithms including generic object trackers and baseline FPV-specific trackers. The analysis is carried out by focusing on different aspects of the FPV setting, introducing new performance measures, and in relation to FPV-specific tasks. The study is made possible through the introduction of TREK-150, a novel benchmark dataset composed of 150 densely annotated video sequences. Our results show that object tracking in FPV poses new challenges to current visual trackers. We highlight the factors causing such behavior and point out possible research directions. Despite their difficulties, we prove that trackers bring benefits to FPV downstream tasks requiring short-term object tracking. We expect that generic object tracking will gain popularity in FPV as new and FPV-specific methodologies are investigated.
Wearable cameras allow to acquire images and videos from the user's perspective. These data can be processed to understand humans behavior. Despite human behavior analysis has been thoroughly investigated in third person vision, it is still understudied in egocentric settings and in particular in industrial scenarios. To encourage research in this field, we present MECCANO, a multimodal dataset of egocentric videos to study humans behavior understanding in industrial-like settings. The multimodality is characterized by the presence of gaze signals, depth maps and RGB videos acquired simultaneously with a custom headset. The dataset has been explicitly labeled for fundamental tasks in the context of human behavior understanding from a first person view, such as recognizing and anticipating human-object interactions. With the MECCANO dataset, we explored five different tasks including 1) Action Recognition, 2) Active Objects Detection and Recognition, 3) Egocentric Human-Objects Interaction Detection, 4) Action Anticipation and 5) Next-Active Objects Detection. We propose a benchmark aimed to study human behavior in the considered industrial-like scenario which demonstrates that the investigated tasks and the considered scenario are challenging for state-of-the-art algorithms. To support research in this field, we publicy release the dataset at https://iplab.dmi.unict.it/MECCANO/.
We consider the problem of detecting and recognizing the objects observed by visitors (i.e., attended objects) in cultural sites from egocentric vision. A standard approach to the problem involves detecting all objects and selecting the one which best overlaps with the gaze of the visitor, measured through a gaze tracker. Since labeling large amounts of data to train a standard object detector is expensive in terms of costs and time, we propose a weakly supervised version of the task which leans only on gaze data and a frame-level label indicating the class of the attended object. To study the problem, we present a new dataset composed of egocentric videos and gaze coordinates of subjects visiting a museum. We hence compare three different baselines for weakly supervised attended object detection on the collected data. Results show that the considered approaches achieve satisfactory performance in a weakly supervised manner, which allows for significant time savings with respect to a fully supervised detector based on Faster R-CNN. To encourage research on the topic, we publicly release the code and the dataset at the following url: https://iplab.dmi.unict.it/WS_OBJ_DET/