Likelihood-free inference is quickly emerging as a powerful tool to perform fast/effective parameter estimation. We demonstrate a technique of optimizing likelihood-free inference to make it even faster by marginalizing symmetries in a physical problem. In this approach, physical symmetries, for example, time-translation are learned using joint-embedding via self-supervised learning with symmetry data augmentations. Subsequently, parameter inference is performed using a normalizing flow where the embedding network is used to summarize the data before conditioning the parameters. We present this approach on two simple physical problems and we show faster convergence in a smaller number of parameters compared to a normalizing flow that does not use a pre-trained symmetry-informed representation.
Machine learning (ML) is becoming an increasingly important component of cutting-edge physics research, but its computational requirements present significant challenges. In this white paper, we discuss the needs of the physics community regarding ML across latency and throughput regimes, the tools and resources that offer the possibility of addressing these needs, and how these can be best utilized and accessed in the coming years.
* Contribution to Snowmass 2021, 33 pages, 5 figures
In this community review report, we discuss applications and techniques for fast machine learning (ML) in science -- the concept of integrating power ML methods into the real-time experimental data processing loop to accelerate scientific discovery. The material for the report builds on two workshops held by the Fast ML for Science community and covers three main areas: applications for fast ML across a number of scientific domains; techniques for training and implementing performant and resource-efficient ML algorithms; and computing architectures, platforms, and technologies for deploying these algorithms. We also present overlapping challenges across the multiple scientific domains where common solutions can be found. This community report is intended to give plenty of examples and inspiration for scientific discovery through integrated and accelerated ML solutions. This is followed by a high-level overview and organization of technical advances, including an abundance of pointers to source material, which can enable these breakthroughs.
Multi-messenger astrophysics is a fast-growing, interdisciplinary field that combines data, which vary in volume and speed of data processing, from many different instruments that probe the Universe using different cosmic messengers: electromagnetic waves, cosmic rays, gravitational waves and neutrinos. In this Expert Recommendation, we review the key challenges of real-time observations of gravitational wave sources and their electromagnetic and astroparticle counterparts, and make a number of recommendations to maximize their potential for scientific discovery. These recommendations refer to the design of scalable and computationally efficient machine learning algorithms; the cyber-infrastructure to numerically simulate astrophysical sources, and to process and interpret multi-messenger astrophysics data; the management of gravitational wave detections to trigger real-time alerts for electromagnetic and astroparticle follow-ups; a vision to harness future developments of machine learning and cyber-infrastructure resources to cope with the big-data requirements; and the need to build a community of experts to realize the goals of multi-messenger astrophysics.
* Nature Reviews Physics volume 1, pages 600-608 (2019) * Invited Expert Recommendation for Nature Reviews Physics. The art
work produced by E. A. Huerta and Shawn Rosofsky for this article was used by
Carl Conway to design the cover of the October 2019 issue of Nature Reviews