Aligning large language models (LLMs) to human values has become increasingly important as it enables sophisticated steering of LLMs, e.g., making them follow given instructions while keeping them less toxic. However, it requires a significant amount of human demonstrations and feedback. Recently, open-sourced models have attempted to replicate the alignment learning process by distilling data from already aligned LLMs like InstructGPT or ChatGPT. While this process reduces human efforts, constructing these datasets has a heavy dependency on the teacher models. In this work, we propose a novel framework for alignment learning with almost no human labor and no dependency on pre-aligned LLMs. First, we perform reward modeling (RM) with synthetic feedback by contrasting responses from vanilla LLMs with various sizes and prompts. Then, we use the RM for simulating high-quality demonstrations to train a supervised policy and for further optimizing the model with reinforcement learning. Our resulting model, Aligned Language Model with Synthetic Training dataset (ALMoST), outperforms open-sourced models, including Alpaca, Dolly, and OpenAssistant, which are trained on the outputs of InstructGPT or human-annotated instructions. Our 7B-sized model outperforms the 12-13B models in the A/B tests using GPT-4 as the judge with about 75% winning rate on average.
Task-oriented dialogue (TOD) systems are mainly based on the slot-filling-based TOD (SF-TOD) framework, in which dialogues are broken down into smaller, controllable units (i.e., slots) to fulfill a specific task. A series of approaches based on this framework achieved remarkable success on various TOD benchmarks. However, we argue that the current TOD benchmarks are limited to surrogate real-world scenarios and that the current TOD models are still a long way from unraveling the scenarios. In this position paper, we first identify current status and limitations of SF-TOD systems. After that, we explore the WebTOD framework, the alternative direction for building a scalable TOD system when a web/mobile interface is available. In WebTOD, the dialogue system learns how to understand the web/mobile interface that the human agent interacts with, powered by a large-scale language model.
Remembering important information from the past and continuing to talk about it in the present are crucial in long-term conversations. However, previous literature does not deal with cases where the memorized information is outdated, which may cause confusion in later conversations. To address this issue, we present a novel task and a corresponding dataset of memory management in long-term conversations, in which bots keep track of and bring up the latest information about users while conversing through multiple sessions. In order to support more precise and interpretable memory, we represent memory as unstructured text descriptions of key information and propose a new mechanism of memory management that selectively eliminates invalidated or redundant information. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms the baselines that leave the stored memory unchanged in terms of engagingness and humanness, with larger performance gap especially in the later sessions.
Visual dialog (VisDial) is a task of answering a sequence of questions grounded in an image, using the dialog history as context. Prior work has trained the dialog agents solely on VisDial data via supervised learning or leveraged pre-training on related vision-and-language datasets. This paper presents a semi-supervised learning approach for visually-grounded dialog, called Generative Self-Training (GST), to leverage unlabeled images on the Web. Specifically, GST first retrieves in-domain images through out-of-distribution detection and generates synthetic dialogs regarding the images via multimodal conditional text generation. GST then trains a dialog agent on the synthetic and the original VisDial data. As a result, GST scales the amount of training data up to an order of magnitude that of VisDial (1.2M to 12.9M QA data). For robust training of the generated dialogs, we also propose perplexity-based data selection and multimodal consistency regularization. Evaluation on VisDial v1.0 and v0.9 datasets shows that GST achieves new state-of-the-art results on both datasets. We further observe strong performance gains in the low-data regime (up to 9.35 absolute points on NDCG).
Recent open-domain dialogue models have brought numerous breakthroughs. However, building a chat system is not scalable since it often requires a considerable volume of human-human dialogue data, especially when enforcing features such as persona, style, or safety. In this work, we study the challenge of imposing roles on open-domain dialogue systems, with the goal of making the systems maintain consistent roles while conversing naturally with humans. To accomplish this, the system must satisfy a role specification that includes certain conditions on the stated features as well as a system policy on whether or not certain types of utterances are allowed. For this, we propose an efficient data collection framework leveraging in-context few-shot learning of large-scale language models for building role-satisfying dialogue dataset from scratch. We then compare various architectures for open-domain dialogue systems in terms of meeting role specifications while maintaining conversational abilities. Automatic and human evaluations show that our models return few out-of-bounds utterances, keeping competitive performance on general metrics. We release a Korean dialogue dataset we built for further research.
GPT-3 shows remarkable in-context learning ability of large-scale language models (LMs) trained on hundreds of billion scale data. Here we address some remaining issues less reported by the GPT-3 paper, such as a non-English LM, the performances of different sized models, and the effect of recently introduced prompt optimization on in-context learning. To achieve this, we introduce HyperCLOVA, a Korean variant of 82B GPT-3 trained on a Korean-centric corpus of 560B tokens. Enhanced by our Korean-specific tokenization, HyperCLOVA with our training configuration shows state-of-the-art in-context zero-shot and few-shot learning performances on various downstream tasks in Korean. Also, we show the performance benefits of prompt-based learning and demonstrate how it can be integrated into the prompt engineering pipeline. Then we discuss the possibility of materializing the No Code AI paradigm by providing AI prototyping capabilities to non-experts of ML by introducing HyperCLOVA studio, an interactive prompt engineering interface. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential of our methods with three successful in-house applications.
Most End-to-End (E2E) SLU networks leverage the pre-trained ASR networks but still lack the capability to understand the semantics of utterances, crucial for the SLU task. To solve this, recently proposed studies use pre-trained NLU networks. However, it is not trivial to fully utilize both pre-trained networks; many solutions were proposed, such as Knowledge Distillation, cross-modal shared embedding, and network integration with Interface. We propose a simple and robust integration method for the E2E SLU network with novel Interface, Continuous Token Interface (CTI), the junctional representation of the ASR and NLU networks when both networks are pre-trained with the same vocabulary. Because the only difference is the noise level, we directly feed the ASR network's output to the NLU network. Thus, we can train our SLU network in an E2E manner without additional modules, such as Gumbel-Softmax. We evaluate our model using SLURP, a challenging SLU dataset and achieve state-of-the-art scores on both intent classification and slot filling tasks. We also verify the NLU network, pre-trained with Masked Language Model, can utilize a noisy textual representation of CTI. Moreover, we show our model can be trained with multi-task learning from heterogeneous data even after integration with CTI.
Speech is one of the most effective means of communication and is full of information that helps the transmission of utterer's thoughts. However, mainly due to the cumbersome processing of acoustic features, phoneme or word posterior probability has frequently been discarded in understanding the natural language. Thus, some recent spoken language understanding (SLU) modules have utilized an end-to-end structure that preserves the uncertainty information. This further reduces the propagation of speech recognition error and guarantees computational efficiency. We claim that in this process, the speech comprehension can benefit from the inference of massive pre-trained language models (LMs). We transfer the knowledge from a concrete Transformer-based text LM to an SLU module which can face a data shortage, based on recent cross-modal distillation methodologies. We demonstrate the validity of our proposal upon the performance on the Fluent Speech Command dataset. Thereby, we experimentally verify our hypothesis that the knowledge could be shared from the top layer of the LM to a fully speech-based module, in which the abstracted speech is expected to meet the semantic representation.
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have been emerging as a promising method for relational representation including recommender systems. However, various challenging issues of social graphs hinder the practical usage of GNNs for social recommendation, such as their complex noisy connections and high heterogeneity. The oversmoothing of GNNs is an obstacle of GNN-based social recommendation as well. Here we propose a new graph embedding method Heterogeneous Graph Propagation (HGP) to tackle these issues. HGP uses a group-user-item tripartite graph as input to reduce the number of edges and the complexity of paths in a social graph. To solve the oversmoothing issue, HGP embeds nodes under a personalized PageRank based propagation scheme, separately for group-user graph and user-item graph. Node embeddings from each graph are integrated using an attention mechanism. We evaluate our HGP on a large-scale real-world dataset consisting of 1,645,279 nodes and 4,711,208 edges. The experimental results show that HGP outperforms several baselines in terms of AUC and F1-score metrics.
Machine learning libraries such as TensorFlow and PyTorch simplify model implementation. However, researchers are still required to perform a non-trivial amount of manual tasks such as GPU allocation, training status tracking, and comparison of models with different hyperparameter settings. We propose a system to handle these tasks and help researchers focus on models. We present the requirements of the system based on a collection of discussions from an online study group comprising 25k members. These include automatic GPU allocation, learning status visualization, handling model parameter snapshots as well as hyperparameter modification during learning, and comparison of performance metrics between models via a leaderboard. We describe the system architecture that fulfills these requirements and present a proof-of-concept implementation, NAVER Smart Machine Learning (NSML). We test the system and confirm substantial efficiency improvements for model development.