With the emergence of diffusion models and rapid development in image processing, it has become effortless to generate fancy images in tasks such as style transfer and image editing. However, these impressive image processing approaches face consistency issues in video processing. In this paper, we propose a powerful model-free toolkit called FastBlend to address the consistency problem for video processing. Based on a patch matching algorithm, we design two inference modes, including blending and interpolation. In the blending mode, FastBlend eliminates video flicker by blending the frames within a sliding window. Moreover, we optimize both computational efficiency and video quality according to different application scenarios. In the interpolation mode, given one or more keyframes rendered by diffusion models, FastBlend can render the whole video. Since FastBlend does not modify the generation process of diffusion models, it exhibits excellent compatibility. Extensive experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of FastBlend. In the blending mode, FastBlend outperforms existing methods for video deflickering and video synthesis. In the interpolation mode, FastBlend surpasses video interpolation and model-based video processing approaches. The source codes have been released on GitHub.
Knowledge-Enhanced Pre-trained Language Models (KEPLMs) improve the performance of various downstream NLP tasks by injecting knowledge facts from large-scale Knowledge Graphs (KGs). However, existing methods for pre-training KEPLMs with relational triples are difficult to be adapted to close domains due to the lack of sufficient domain graph semantics. In this paper, we propose a Knowledge-enhanced lANGuAge Representation learning framework for various clOsed dOmains (KANGAROO) via capturing the implicit graph structure among the entities. Specifically, since the entity coverage rates of closed-domain KGs can be relatively low and may exhibit the global sparsity phenomenon for knowledge injection, we consider not only the shallow relational representations of triples but also the hyperbolic embeddings of deep hierarchical entity-class structures for effective knowledge fusion.Moreover, as two closed-domain entities under the same entity-class often have locally dense neighbor subgraphs counted by max point biconnected component, we further propose a data augmentation strategy based on contrastive learning over subgraphs to construct hard negative samples of higher quality. It makes the underlying KELPMs better distinguish the semantics of these neighboring entities to further complement the global semantic sparsity. In the experiments, we evaluate KANGAROO over various knowledge-aware and general NLP tasks in both full and few-shot learning settings, outperforming various KEPLM training paradigms performance in closed-domains significantly.
In cross-lingual language understanding, machine translation is often utilized to enhance the transferability of models across languages, either by translating the training data from the source language to the target, or from the target to the source to aid inference. However, in cross-lingual machine reading comprehension (MRC), it is difficult to perform a deep level of assistance to enhance cross-lingual transfer because of the variation of answer span positions in different languages. In this paper, we propose X-STA, a new approach for cross-lingual MRC. Specifically, we leverage an attentive teacher to subtly transfer the answer spans of the source language to the answer output space of the target. A Gradient-Disentangled Knowledge Sharing technique is proposed as an improved cross-attention block. In addition, we force the model to learn semantic alignments from multiple granularities and calibrate the model outputs with teacher guidance to enhance cross-lingual transferability. Experiments on three multi-lingual MRC datasets show the effectiveness of our method, outperforming state-of-the-art approaches.
Reasoning is a distinctive human capacity, enabling us to address complex problems by breaking them down into a series of manageable cognitive steps. Yet, complex logical reasoning is still cumbersome for language models. Based on the dual process theory in cognitive science, we are the first to unravel the cognitive reasoning abilities of language models. Our framework employs an iterative methodology to construct a Cognitive Tree (CogTree). The root node of this tree represents the initial query, while the leaf nodes consist of straightforward questions that can be answered directly. This construction involves two main components: the implicit extraction module (referred to as the intuitive system) and the explicit reasoning module (referred to as the reflective system). The intuitive system rapidly generates multiple responses by utilizing in-context examples, while the reflective system scores these responses using comparative learning. The scores guide the intuitive system in its subsequent generation step. Our experimental results on two popular and challenging reasoning tasks indicate that it is possible to achieve a performance level comparable to that of GPT-3.5 (with 175B parameters), using a significantly smaller language model that contains fewer parameters (<=7B) than 5% of GPT-3.5.
Recently, diffusion-based deep generative models (e.g., Stable Diffusion) have shown impressive results in text-to-image synthesis. However, current text-to-image models often require multiple passes of prompt engineering by humans in order to produce satisfactory results for real-world applications. We propose BeautifulPrompt, a deep generative model to produce high-quality prompts from very simple raw descriptions, which enables diffusion-based models to generate more beautiful images. In our work, we first fine-tuned the BeautifulPrompt model over low-quality and high-quality collecting prompt pairs. Then, to ensure that our generated prompts can generate more beautiful images, we further propose a Reinforcement Learning with Visual AI Feedback technique to fine-tune our model to maximize the reward values of the generated prompts, where the reward values are calculated based on the PickScore and the Aesthetic Scores. Our results demonstrate that learning from visual AI feedback promises the potential to improve the quality of generated prompts and images significantly. We further showcase the integration of BeautifulPrompt to a cloud-native AI platform to provide better text-to-image generation service in the cloud.
The recent success of large pre-trained language models (PLMs) heavily hinges on massive labeled data, which typically produces inferior performance in low-resource scenarios. To remedy this dilemma, we study self-training as one of the predominant semi-supervised learning (SSL) approaches, which utilizes large-scale unlabeled data to generate synthetic examples. However, too many noisy labels will hurt the model performance, and the self-training procedure requires multiple training iterations making it more expensive if all the model parameters of the PLM are updated. This paper presents UPET, a novel Uncertainty-aware Parameter-Efficient self-Training framework to effectively and efficiently address the labeled data scarcity issue. Specifically, we incorporate Monte Carlo (MC) dropout in Bayesian neural network (BNN) to perform uncertainty estimation for the teacher model and then judiciously select reliable pseudo-labeled examples based on confidence and certainty. During the student training, we introduce multiple parameter-efficient learning (PEL) paradigms that allow the optimization of only a small percentage of parameters. We also propose a novel Easy-Hard Contrastive Tuning to enhance the robustness and generalization. Extensive experiments over multiple downstream tasks demonstrate that UPET achieves a substantial improvement in terms of performance and efficiency. Our codes and data are released at https: //github.com/wjn1996/UPET.
Interactive machine translation (IMT) has emerged as a progression of the computer-aided translation paradigm, where the machine translation system and the human translator collaborate to produce high-quality translations. This paper introduces Synslator, a user-friendly computer-aided translation (CAT) tool that not only supports IMT, but is adept at online learning with real-time translation memories. To accommodate various deployment environments for CAT services, Synslator integrates two different neural translation models to handle translation memories for online learning. Additionally, the system employs a language model to enhance the fluency of translations in an interactive mode. In evaluation, we have confirmed the effectiveness of online learning through the translation models, and have observed a 13% increase in post-editing efficiency with the interactive functionalities of Synslator. A tutorial video is available at:https://youtu.be/K0vRsb2lTt8.
In-Context Learning (ICL) over Large language models (LLMs) aims at solving previously unseen tasks by conditioning on a few training examples, eliminating the need for parameter updates and achieving competitive performance. In this paper, we demonstrate that factual knowledge is imperative for the performance of ICL in three core facets, i.e., the inherent knowledge learned in LLMs, the factual knowledge derived from the selected in-context examples, and the knowledge biases in LLMs for output generation. To unleash the power of LLMs in few-shot learning scenarios, we introduce a novel Knowledgeable In-Context Tuning (KICT) framework to further improve the performance of ICL: 1) injecting factual knowledge to LLMs during continual self-supervised pre-training, 2) judiciously selecting the examples with high knowledge relevance, and 3) calibrating the prediction results based on prior knowledge. We evaluate the proposed approaches on auto-regressive LLMs (e.g., GPT-style models) over multiple text classification and question answering tasks. Experimental results demonstrate that KICT substantially outperforms strong baselines, and improves by more than 13% and 7% of accuracy on text classification and question answering tasks, respectively.
Self-attention-based vision transformers (ViTs) have emerged as a highly competitive architecture in computer vision. Unlike convolutional neural networks (CNNs), ViTs are capable of global information sharing. With the development of various structures of ViTs, ViTs are increasingly advantageous for many vision tasks. However, the quadratic complexity of self-attention renders ViTs computationally intensive, and their lack of inductive biases of locality and translation equivariance demands larger model sizes compared to CNNs to effectively learn visual features. In this paper, we propose a light-weight and efficient vision transformer model called DualToken-ViT that leverages the advantages of CNNs and ViTs. DualToken-ViT effectively fuses the token with local information obtained by convolution-based structure and the token with global information obtained by self-attention-based structure to achieve an efficient attention structure. In addition, we use position-aware global tokens throughout all stages to enrich the global information, which further strengthening the effect of DualToken-ViT. Position-aware global tokens also contain the position information of the image, which makes our model better for vision tasks. We conducted extensive experiments on image classification, object detection and semantic segmentation tasks to demonstrate the effectiveness of DualToken-ViT. On the ImageNet-1K dataset, our models of different scales achieve accuracies of 75.4% and 79.4% with only 0.5G and 1.0G FLOPs, respectively, and our model with 1.0G FLOPs outperforms LightViT-T using global tokens by 0.7%.
Recently, Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved amazing zero-shot learning performance over a variety of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, especially for text generative tasks. Yet, the large size of LLMs often leads to the high computational cost of model training and online deployment. In our work, we present ALTER, a system that effectively builds the multi-tAsk Learners with mixTure-of-task-adaptERs upon small language models (with <1B parameters) to address multiple NLP tasks simultaneously, capturing the commonalities and differences between tasks, in order to support domain-specific applications. Specifically, in ALTER, we propose the Mixture-of-Task-Adapters (MTA) module as an extension to the transformer architecture for the underlying model to capture the intra-task and inter-task knowledge. A two-stage training method is further proposed to optimize the collaboration between adapters at a small computational cost. Experimental results over a mixture of NLP tasks show that our proposed MTA architecture and the two-stage training method achieve good performance. Based on ALTER, we have also produced MTA-equipped language models for various domains.