Animals have a developed ability to explore that aids them in important tasks such as locating food, exploring for shelter, and finding misplaced items. These exploration skills necessarily track where they have been so that they can plan for finding items with relative efficiency. Contemporary exploration algorithms often learn a less efficient exploration strategy because they either condition only on the current state or simply rely on making random open-loop exploratory moves. In this work, we propose $\eta\psi$-Learning, a method to learn efficient exploratory policies by conditioning on past episodic experience to make the next exploratory move. Specifically, $\eta\psi$-Learning learns an exploration policy that maximizes the entropy of the state visitation distribution of a single trajectory. Furthermore, we demonstrate how variants of the predecessor representation and successor representations can be combined to predict the state visitation entropy. Our experiments demonstrate the efficacy of $\eta\psi$-Learning to strategically explore the environment and maximize the state coverage with limited samples.
Locust infestation of some regions in the world, including Africa, Asia and Middle East has become a concerning issue that can affect the health and the lives of millions of people. In this respect, there have been attempts to resolve or reduce the severity of this problem via detection and monitoring of locust breeding areas using satellites and sensors, or the use of chemicals to prevent the formation of swarms. However, such methods have not been able to suppress the emergence and the collective behaviour of locusts. The ability to predict the location of the locust swarms prior to their formation, on the other hand, can help people get prepared and tackle the infestation issue more effectively. Here, we use machine learning to predict the location of locust swarms using the available data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The data includes the location of the observed swarms as well as environmental information, including soil moisture and the density of vegetation. The obtained results show that our proposed model can successfully, and with reasonable precision, predict the location of locust swarms, as well as their likely level of damage using a notion of density.
Contemporary deep learning based inpainting algorithms are mainly based on a hybrid dual stage training policy of supervised reconstruction loss followed by an unsupervised adversarial critic loss. However, there is a dearth of literature for a fully unsupervised GAN based inpainting framework. The primary aversion towards the latter genre is due to its prohibitively slow iterative optimization requirement during inference to find a matching noise prior for a masked image. In this paper, we show that priors matter in GAN: we learn a data driven parametric network to predict a matching prior for a given image. This converts an iterative paradigm to a single feed forward inference pipeline with a massive 1500X speedup and simultaneous improvement in reconstruction quality. We show that an additional structural prior imposed on GAN model results in higher fidelity outputs. To extend our model for sequence inpainting, we propose a recurrent net based grouped noise prior learning. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an unsupervised GAN based sequence inpainting. A further improvement in sequence inpainting is achieved with an additional subsequence consistency loss. These contributions improve the spatio-temporal characteristics of reconstructed sequences. Extensive experiments conducted on SVHN, Standford Cars, CelebA and CelebA-HQ image datasets, synthetic sequences and ViDTIMIT video datasets reveal that we consistently improve upon previous unsupervised baseline and also achieve comparable performances(sometimes also better) to hybrid benchmarks.
In this paper, we propose to improve the inference speed and visual quality of contemporary baseline of Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) based unsupervised semantic inpainting. This is made possible with better initialization of the core iterative optimization involved in the framework. To our best knowledge, this is also the first attempt of GAN based video inpainting with consideration to temporal cues. On single image inpainting, we achieve about 4.5-5$\times$ speedup and 80$\times$ on videos compared to baseline. Simultaneously, our method has better spatial and temporal reconstruction qualities as found on three image and one video dataset.
We integrate learning and motion planning for soccer playing differential drive robots using Bayesian optimisation. Trajectories generated using end-slope cubic Bezier splines are first optimised globally through Bayesian optimisation for a set of candidate points with obstacles. The optimised trajectories along with robot and obstacle positions and velocities are stored in a database. The closest planning situation is identified from the database using k-Nearest Neighbour approach. It is further optimised online through reuse of prior information from previously optimised trajectory. Our approach reduces computation time of trajectory optimisation considerably. Velocity profiling generates velocities consistent with robot kinodynamoic constraints, and avoids collision and slipping. Extensive testing is done on developed simulator, as well as on physical differential drive robots. Our method shows marked improvements in mitigating tracking error, and reducing traversal and computational time over competing techniques under the constraints of performing tasks in real time.
* Accepted at ACM India Joint Conference on Data Science and Management
of Data 2018
In this paper, we introduce Key-Value Memory Networks to a multimodal setting and a novel key-addressing mechanism to deal with sequence-to-sequence models. The proposed model naturally decomposes the problem of video captioning into vision and language segments, dealing with them as key-value pairs. More specifically, we learn a semantic embedding (v) corresponding to each frame (k) in the video, thereby creating (k, v) memory slots. We propose to find the next step attention weights conditioned on the previous attention distributions for the key-value memory slots in the memory addressing schema. Exploiting this flexibility of the framework, we additionally capture spatial dependencies while mapping from the visual to semantic embedding. Experiments done on the Youtube2Text dataset demonstrate usefulness of recurrent key-addressing, while achieving competitive scores on BLEU@4, METEOR metrics against state-of-the-art models.