We present Cutie, a video object segmentation (VOS) network with object-level memory reading, which puts the object representation from memory back into the video object segmentation result. Recent works on VOS employ bottom-up pixel-level memory reading which struggles due to matching noise, especially in the presence of distractors, resulting in lower performance in more challenging data. In contrast, Cutie performs top-down object-level memory reading by adapting a small set of object queries for restructuring and interacting with the bottom-up pixel features iteratively with a query-based object transformer (qt, hence Cutie). The object queries act as a high-level summary of the target object, while high-resolution feature maps are retained for accurate segmentation. Together with foreground-background masked attention, Cutie cleanly separates the semantics of the foreground object from the background. On the challenging MOSE dataset, Cutie improves by 8.7 J&F over XMem with a similar running time and improves by 4.2 J&F over DeAOT while running three times as fast. Code is available at: https://hkchengrex.github.io/Cutie
Training data for video segmentation are expensive to annotate. This impedes extensions of end-to-end algorithms to new video segmentation tasks, especially in large-vocabulary settings. To 'track anything' without training on video data for every individual task, we develop a decoupled video segmentation approach (DEVA), composed of task-specific image-level segmentation and class/task-agnostic bi-directional temporal propagation. Due to this design, we only need an image-level model for the target task (which is cheaper to train) and a universal temporal propagation model which is trained once and generalizes across tasks. To effectively combine these two modules, we use bi-directional propagation for (semi-)online fusion of segmentation hypotheses from different frames to generate a coherent segmentation. We show that this decoupled formulation compares favorably to end-to-end approaches in several data-scarce tasks including large-vocabulary video panoptic segmentation, open-world video segmentation, referring video segmentation, and unsupervised video object segmentation. Code is available at: https://hkchengrex.github.io/Tracking-Anything-with-DEVA
In this work, we present a novel framework built to simplify 3D asset generation for amateur users. To enable interactive generation, our method supports a variety of input modalities that can be easily provided by a human, including images, text, partially observed shapes and combinations of these, further allowing to adjust the strength of each input. At the core of our approach is an encoder-decoder, compressing 3D shapes into a compact latent representation, upon which a diffusion model is learned. To enable a variety of multi-modal inputs, we employ task-specific encoders with dropout followed by a cross-attention mechanism. Due to its flexibility, our model naturally supports a variety of tasks, outperforming prior works on shape completion, image-based 3D reconstruction, and text-to-3D. Most interestingly, our model can combine all these tasks into one swiss-army-knife tool, enabling the user to perform shape generation using incomplete shapes, images, and textual descriptions at the same time, providing the relative weights for each input and facilitating interactivity. Despite our approach being shape-only, we further show an efficient method to texture the generated shape using large-scale text-to-image models.
Generalization bounds which assess the difference between the true risk and the empirical risk, have been studied extensively. However, to obtain bounds, current techniques use strict assumptions such as a uniformly bounded or a Lipschitz loss function. To avoid these assumptions, in this paper, we follow an alternative approach: we relax uniform bounds assumptions by using on-average bounded loss and on-average bounded gradient norm assumptions. Following this relaxation, we propose a new generalization bound that exploits the contractivity of the log-Sobolev inequalities. These inequalities add an additional loss-gradient norm term to the generalization bound, which is intuitively a surrogate of the model complexity. We apply the proposed bound on Bayesian deep nets and empirically analyze the effect of this new loss-gradient norm term on different neural architectures.
Forecasting of a representation is important for safe and effective autonomy. For this, panoptic segmentations have been studied as a compelling representation in recent work. However, recent state-of-the-art on panoptic segmentation forecasting suffers from two issues: first, individual object instances are treated independently of each other; second, individual object instance forecasts are merged in a heuristic manner. To address both issues, we study a new panoptic segmentation forecasting model that jointly forecasts all object instances in a scene using a transformer model based on 'difference attention.' It further refines the predictions by taking depth estimates into account. We evaluate the proposed model on the Cityscapes and AIODrive datasets. We find difference attention to be particularly suitable for forecasting because the difference of quantities like locations enables a model to explicitly reason about velocities and acceleration. Because of this, we attain state-of-the-art on panoptic segmentation forecasting metrics.
Recently, there has been an increasing interest in building question answering (QA) models that reason across multiple modalities, such as text and images. However, QA using images is often limited to just picking the answer from a pre-defined set of options. In addition, images in the real world, especially in news, have objects that are co-referential to the text, with complementary information from both modalities. In this paper, we present a new QA evaluation benchmark with 1,384 questions over news articles that require cross-media grounding of objects in images onto text. Specifically, the task involves multi-hop questions that require reasoning over image-caption pairs to identify the grounded visual object being referred to and then predicting a span from the news body text to answer the question. In addition, we introduce a novel multimedia data augmentation framework, based on cross-media knowledge extraction and synthetic question-answer generation, to automatically augment data that can provide weak supervision for this task. We evaluate both pipeline-based and end-to-end pretraining-based multimedia QA models on our benchmark, and show that they achieve promising performance, while considerably lagging behind human performance hence leaving large room for future work on this challenging new task.
Machine learning advances in the last decade have relied significantly on large-scale datasets that continue to grow in size. Increasingly, those datasets also contain different data modalities. However, large multi-modal datasets are hard to annotate, and annotations may contain biases that we are often unaware of. Deep-net-based classifiers, in turn, are prone to exploit those biases and to find shortcuts. To study and quantify this concern, we introduce the perceptual score, a metric that assesses the degree to which a model relies on the different subsets of the input features, i.e., modalities. Using the perceptual score, we find a surprisingly consistent trend across four popular datasets: recent, more accurate state-of-the-art multi-modal models for visual question-answering or visual dialog tend to perceive the visual data less than their predecessors. This trend is concerning as answers are hence increasingly inferred from textual cues only. Using the perceptual score also helps to analyze model biases by decomposing the score into data subset contributions. We hope to spur a discussion on the perceptiveness of multi-modal models and also hope to encourage the community working on multi-modal classifiers to start quantifying perceptiveness via the proposed perceptual score.
Webpage information extraction (WIE) is an important step to create knowledge bases. For this, classical WIE methods leverage the Document Object Model (DOM) tree of a website. However, use of the DOM tree poses significant challenges as context and appearance are encoded in an abstract manner. To address this challenge we propose to reformulate WIE as a context-aware Webpage Object Detection task. Specifically, we develop a Context-aware Visual Attention-based (CoVA) detection pipeline which combines appearance features with syntactical structure from the DOM tree. To study the approach we collect a new large-scale dataset of e-commerce websites for which we manually annotate every web element with four labels: product price, product title, product image and background. On this dataset we show that the proposed CoVA approach is a new challenging baseline which improves upon prior state-of-the-art methods.
Communication between embodied AI agents has received increasing attention in recent years. Despite its use, it is still unclear whether the learned communication is interpretable and grounded in perception. To study the grounding of emergent forms of communication, we first introduce the collaborative multi-object navigation task CoMON. In this task, an oracle agent has detailed environment information in the form of a map. It communicates with a navigator agent that perceives the environment visually and is tasked to find a sequence of goals. To succeed at the task, effective communication is essential. CoMON hence serves as a basis to study different communication mechanisms between heterogeneous agents, that is, agents with different capabilities and roles. We study two common communication mechanisms and analyze their communication patterns through an egocentric and spatial lens. We show that the emergent communication can be grounded to the agent observations and the spatial structure of the 3D environment. Video summary: https://youtu.be/kLv2rxO9t0g
It is fundamental for personal robots to reliably navigate to a specified goal. To study this task, PointGoal navigation has been introduced in simulated Embodied AI environments. Recent advances solve this PointGoal navigation task with near-perfect accuracy (99.6% success) in photo-realistically simulated environments, assuming noiseless egocentric vision, noiseless actuation, and most importantly, perfect localization. However, under realistic noise models for visual sensors and actuation, and without access to a "GPS and Compass sensor," the 99.6%-success agents for PointGoal navigation only succeed with 0.3%. In this work, we demonstrate the surprising effectiveness of visual odometry for the task of PointGoal navigation in this realistic setting, i.e., with realistic noise models for perception and actuation and without access to GPS and Compass sensors. We show that integrating visual odometry techniques into navigation policies improves the state-of-the-art on the popular Habitat PointNav benchmark by a large margin, improving success from 64.5% to 71.7% while executing 6.4 times faster.