Recent advances in generative modeling, namely Diffusion models, have revolutionized generative modeling, enabling high-quality image generation tailored to user needs. This paper proposes a framework for the generative design of structural components. Specifically, we employ a Latent Diffusion model to generate potential designs of a component that can satisfy a set of problem-specific loading conditions. One of the distinct advantages our approach offers over other generative approaches, such as generative adversarial networks (GANs), is that it permits the editing of existing designs. We train our model using a dataset of geometries obtained from structural topology optimization utilizing the SIMP algorithm. Consequently, our framework generates inherently near-optimal designs. Our work presents quantitative results that support the structural performance of the generated designs and the variability in potential candidate designs. Furthermore, we provide evidence of the scalability of our framework by operating over voxel domains with resolutions varying from $32^3$ to $128^3$. Our framework can be used as a starting point for generating novel near-optimal designs similar to topology-optimized designs.
3D printing or additive manufacturing is a revolutionary technology that enables the creation of physical objects from digital models. However, the quality and accuracy of 3D printing depend on the correctness and efficiency of the G-code, a low-level numerical control programming language that instructs 3D printers how to move and extrude material. Debugging G-code is a challenging task that requires a syntactic and semantic understanding of the G-code format and the geometry of the part to be printed. In this paper, we present the first extensive evaluation of six state-of-the-art foundational large language models (LLMs) for comprehending and debugging G-code files for 3D printing. We design effective prompts to enable pre-trained LLMs to understand and manipulate G-code and test their performance on various aspects of G-code debugging and manipulation, including detection and correction of common errors and the ability to perform geometric transformations. We analyze their strengths and weaknesses for understanding complete G-code files. We also discuss the implications and limitations of using LLMs for G-code comprehension.
Current state-of-the-art methods for text-to-shape generation either require supervised training using a labeled dataset of pre-defined 3D shapes, or perform expensive inference-time optimization of implicit neural representations. In this work, we present ZeroForge, an approach for zero-shot text-to-shape generation that avoids both pitfalls. To achieve open-vocabulary shape generation, we require careful architectural adaptation of existing feed-forward approaches, as well as a combination of data-free CLIP-loss and contrastive losses to avoid mode collapse. Using these techniques, we are able to considerably expand the generative ability of existing feed-forward text-to-shape models such as CLIP-Forge. We support our method via extensive qualitative and quantitative evaluations
Deep learning is becoming increasingly adopted in business and industry due to its ability to transform large quantities of data into high-performing models. These models, however, are generally regarded as black boxes, which, in spite of their performance, could prevent their use. In this context, the field of eXplainable AI attempts to develop techniques that temper the impenetrable nature of the models and promote a level of understanding of their behavior. Here we present our contribution to XAI methods in the form of a framework that we term SpecXAI, which is based on the spectral characterization of the entire network. We show how this framework can be used to not only understand the network but also manipulate it into a linear interpretable symbolic representation.
Recent developments in deep learning-based methods demonstrated its potential to predict the 3D protein structures using inputs such as protein sequences, Cryo-Electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) images of proteins, etc. However, these methods struggle to predict the protein complexes (PC), structures with more than one protein. In this work, we explore the atomic force microscope (AFM) assisted deep learning-based methods to predict the 3D structure of PCs. The images produced by AFM capture the protein structure in different and random orientations. These multi-view images can help train the neural network to predict the 3D structure of protein complexes. However, obtaining the dataset of actual AFM images is time-consuming and not a pragmatic task. We propose a virtual AFM imaging pipeline that takes a 'PDB' protein file and generates multi-view 2D virtual AFM images using volume rendering techniques. With this, we created a dataset of around 8K proteins. We train a neural network for 3D reconstruction called Pix2Vox++ using the synthesized multi-view 2D AFM images dataset. We compare the predicted structure obtained using a different number of views and get the intersection over union (IoU) value of 0.92 on the training dataset and 0.52 on the validation dataset. We believe this approach will lead to better prediction of the structure of protein complexes.
Neural network-based approaches for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) have recently received special attention. However, the large majority of neural PDE solvers only apply to rectilinear domains, and do not systematically address the imposition of Dirichlet/Neumann boundary conditions over irregular domain boundaries. In this paper, we present a framework to neurally solve partial differential equations over domains with irregularly shaped (non-rectilinear) geometric boundaries. Our network takes in the shape of the domain as an input (represented using an unstructured point cloud, or any other parametric representation such as Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) and is able to generalize to novel (unseen) irregular domains; the key technical ingredient to realizing this model is a novel approach for identifying the interior and exterior of the computational grid in a differentiable manner. We also perform a careful error analysis which reveals theoretical insights into several sources of error incurred in the model-building process. Finally, we showcase a wide variety of applications, along with favorable comparisons with ground truth solutions.
We consider a mesh-based approach for training a neural network to produce field predictions of solutions to parametric partial differential equations (PDEs). This approach contrasts current approaches for "neural PDE solvers" that employ collocation-based methods to make point-wise predictions of solutions to PDEs. This approach has the advantage of naturally enforcing different boundary conditions as well as ease of invoking well-developed PDE theory -- including analysis of numerical stability and convergence -- to obtain capacity bounds for our proposed neural networks in discretized domains. We explore our mesh-based strategy, called NeuFENet, using a weighted Galerkin loss function based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) on a parametric elliptic PDE. The weighted Galerkin loss (FEM loss) is similar to an energy functional that produces improved solutions, satisfies a priori mesh convergence, and can model Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. We prove theoretically, and illustrate with experiments, convergence results analogous to mesh convergence analysis deployed in finite element solutions to PDEs. These results suggest that a mesh-based neural network approach serves as a promising approach for solving parametric PDEs with theoretical bounds.
The paradigm of differentiable programming has significantly enhanced the scope of machine learning via the judicious use of gradient-based optimization. However, standard differentiable programming methods (such as autodiff) typically require that the machine learning models be differentiable, limiting their applicability. Our goal in this paper is to use a new, principled approach to extend gradient-based optimization to functions well modeled by splines, which encompass a large family of piecewise polynomial models. We derive the form of the (weak) Jacobian of such functions and show that it exhibits a block-sparse structure that can be computed implicitly and efficiently. Overall, we show that leveraging this redesigned Jacobian in the form of a differentiable "layer" in predictive models leads to improved performance in diverse applications such as image segmentation, 3D point cloud reconstruction, and finite element analysis.