We present RadGraph2, a novel dataset for extracting information from radiology reports that focuses on capturing changes in disease state and device placement over time. We introduce a hierarchical schema that organizes entities based on their relationships and show that using this hierarchy during training improves the performance of an information extraction model. Specifically, we propose a modification to the DyGIE++ framework, resulting in our model HGIE, which outperforms previous models in entity and relation extraction tasks. We demonstrate that RadGraph2 enables models to capture a wider variety of findings and perform better at relation extraction compared to those trained on the original RadGraph dataset. Our work provides the foundation for developing automated systems that can track disease progression over time and develop information extraction models that leverage the natural hierarchy of labels in the medical domain.
Sum-product networks (SPNs) have recently emerged as a novel deep learning architecture enabling highly efficient probabilistic inference. Since their introduction, SPNs have been applied to a wide range of data modalities and extended to time-sequence data. In this paper, we propose a general framework for modelling sequential treatment decision-making behaviour and treatment response using recurrent sum-product networks (RSPNs). Models developed using our framework benefit from the full range of RSPN capabilities, including the abilities to model the full distribution of the data, to seamlessly handle latent variables, missing values and categorical data, and to efficiently perform marginal and conditional inference. Our methodology is complemented by a novel variant of the expectation-maximization algorithm for RSPNs, enabling efficient training of our models. We evaluate our approach on a synthetic dataset as well as real-world data from the MIMIC-IV intensive care unit medical database. Our evaluation demonstrates that our approach can closely match the ground-truth data generation process on synthetic data and achieve results close to neural and probabilistic baselines while using a tractable and interpretable model.