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"speech": models, code, and papers

Applying Part-of-Seech Enhanced LSA to Automatic Essay Grading

Oct 19, 2006
Tuomo Kakkonen, Niko Myller, Erkki Sutinen

Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is a widely used Information Retrieval method based on "bag-of-words" assumption. However, according to general conception, syntax plays a role in representing meaning of sentences. Thus, enhancing LSA with part-of-speech (POS) information to capture the context of word occurrences appears to be theoretically feasible extension. The approach is tested empirically on a automatic essay grading system using LSA for document similarity comparisons. A comparison on several POS-enhanced LSA models is reported. Our findings show that the addition of contextual information in the form of POS tags can raise the accuracy of the LSA-based scoring models up to 10.77 per cent.

* Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Information Technology: Research and Education (ITRE 2006). Tel Aviv, Israel, 2006 

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Name Strategy: Its Existence and Implications

Dec 04, 1998
Mark D. Roberts

It is argued that colour name strategy, object name strategy, and chunking strategy in memory are all aspects of the same general phenomena, called stereotyping. It is pointed out that the Berlin-Kay universal partial ordering of colours and the frequency of traffic accidents classified by colour are surprisingly similar. Some consequences of the existence of a name strategy for the philosophy of language and mathematics are discussed. It is argued that real valued quantities occur {\it ab initio}. The implication of real valued truth quantities is that the {\bf Continuum Hypothesis} of pure mathematics is side-stepped. The existence of name strategy shows that thought/sememes and talk/phonemes can be separate, and this vindicates the assumption of thought occurring before talk used in psycholinguistic speech production models.

* Int.J.Computational Cognition Volume 3 Pages 1-14 (2005). 
* 32 pages, 2 ascii diagrams 

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Few-Shot Speaker Identification Using Depthwise Separable Convolutional Network with Channel Attention

Apr 24, 2022
Yanxiong Li, Wucheng Wang, Hao Chen, Wenchang Cao, Wei Li, Qianhua He

Although few-shot learning has attracted much attention from the fields of image and audio classification, few efforts have been made on few-shot speaker identification. In the task of few-shot learning, overfitting is a tough problem mainly due to the mismatch between training and testing conditions. In this paper, we propose a few-shot speaker identification method which can alleviate the overfitting problem. In the proposed method, the model of a depthwise separable convolutional network with channel attention is trained with a prototypical loss function. Experimental datasets are extracted from three public speech corpora: Aishell-2, VoxCeleb1 and TORGO. Experimental results show that the proposed method exceeds state-of-the-art methods for few-shot speaker identification in terms of accuracy and F-score.

* Accepted by Odyssey 2022 (The Speaker and Language Recognition Workshop 2022, Beijing, China) 

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Punctuation Restoration

Feb 19, 2022
Viet Dac Lai, Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh, Franck Dernoncourt, Thien Huu Nguyen

Given the increasing number of livestreaming videos, automatic speech recognition and post-processing for livestreaming video transcripts are crucial for efficient data management as well as knowledge mining. A key step in this process is punctuation restoration which restores fundamental text structures such as phrase and sentence boundaries from the video transcripts. This work presents a new human-annotated corpus, called BehancePR, for punctuation restoration in livestreaming video transcripts. Our experiments on BehancePR demonstrate the challenges of punctuation restoration for this domain. Furthermore, we show that popular natural language processing toolkits are incapable of detecting sentence boundary on non-punctuated transcripts of livestreaming videos, calling for more research effort to develop robust models for this area.


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Rethinking Evaluation in ASR: Are Our Models Robust Enough?

Oct 22, 2020
Tatiana Likhomanenko, Qiantong Xu, Vineel Pratap, Paden Tomasello, Jacob Kahn, Gilad Avidov, Ronan Collobert, Gabriel Synnaeve

Is pushing numbers on a single benchmark valuable in automatic speech recognition? Research results in acoustic modeling are typically evaluated based on performance on a single dataset. While the research community has coalesced around various benchmarks, we set out to understand generalization performance in acoustic modeling across datasets -- in particular, if models trained on a single dataset transfer to other (possibly out-of-domain) datasets. Further, we demonstrate that when a large enough set of benchmarks is used, average word error rate (WER) performance over them provides a good proxy for performance on real-world data. Finally, we show that training a single acoustic model on the most widely-used datasets -- combined -- reaches competitive performance on both research and real-world benchmarks.


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Glottal Source Processing: from Analysis to Applications

Dec 29, 2019
Thomas Drugman, Paavo Alku, Abeer Alwan, Bayya Yegnanarayana

The great majority of current voice technology applications relies on acoustic features characterizing the vocal tract response, such as the widely used MFCC of LPC parameters. Nonetheless, the airflow passing through the vocal folds, and called glottal flow, is expected to exhibit a relevant complementarity. Unfortunately, glottal analysis from speech recordings requires specific and more complex processing operations, which explains why it has been generally avoided. This review gives a general overview of techniques which have been designed for glottal source processing. Starting from fundamental analysis tools of pitch tracking, glottal closure instant detection, glottal flow estimation and modelling, this paper then highlights how these solutions can be properly integrated within various voice technology applications.


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WEnets: A Convolutional Framework for Evaluating Audio Waveforms

Sep 19, 2019
Andrew A. Catellier, Stephen D. Voran

We describe a new convolutional framework for waveform evaluation, WEnets, and build a Narrowband Audio Waveform Evaluation Network, or NAWEnet, using this framework. NAWEnet is single-ended (or no-reference) and was trained three separate times in order to emulate PESQ, POLQA, or STOI with testing correlations 0.95, 0.92, and 0.95, respectively when training on only 50% of available data and testing on 40%. Stacks of 1-D convolutional layers and non-linear downsampling learn which features are important for quality or intelligibility estimation. This straightforward architecture simplifies the interpretation of its inner workings and paves the way for future investigations into higher sample rates and accurate no-reference subjective speech quality predictions.


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Predicting Causes of Reformulation in Intelligent Assistants

Jul 13, 2017
Shumpei Sano, Nobuhiro Kaji, Manabu Sassano

Intelligent assistants (IAs) such as Siri and Cortana conversationally interact with users and execute a wide range of actions (e.g., searching the Web, setting alarms, and chatting). IAs can support these actions through the combination of various components such as automatic speech recognition, natural language understanding, and language generation. However, the complexity of these components hinders developers from determining which component causes an error. To remove this hindrance, we focus on reformulation, which is a useful signal of user dissatisfaction, and propose a method to predict the reformulation causes. We evaluate the method using the user logs of a commercial IA. The experimental results have demonstrated that features designed to detect the error of a specific component improve the performance of reformulation cause detection.

* 11 pages, 2 figures, accepted as a long paper for SIGDIAL 2017 

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Joint PoS Tagging and Stemming for Agglutinative Languages

May 24, 2017
Necva Bölücü, Burcu Can

The number of word forms in agglutinative languages is theoretically infinite and this variety in word forms introduces sparsity in many natural language processing tasks. Part-of-speech tagging (PoS tagging) is one of these tasks that often suffers from sparsity. In this paper, we present an unsupervised Bayesian model using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) for joint PoS tagging and stemming for agglutinative languages. We use stemming to reduce sparsity in PoS tagging. Two tasks are jointly performed to provide a mutual benefit in both tasks. Our results show that joint POS tagging and stemming improves PoS tagging scores. We present results for Turkish and Finnish as agglutinative languages and English as a morphologically poor language.

* CICLING 2017 
* 12 pages with 3 figures, accepted and presented at the CICLING 2017 - 18th International Conference on Intelligent Text Processing and Computational Linguistics 

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Convolutional Neural Networks on Graphs with Fast Localized Spectral Filtering

Feb 05, 2017
Michaël Defferrard, Xavier Bresson, Pierre Vandergheynst

In this work, we are interested in generalizing convolutional neural networks (CNNs) from low-dimensional regular grids, where image, video and speech are represented, to high-dimensional irregular domains, such as social networks, brain connectomes or words' embedding, represented by graphs. We present a formulation of CNNs in the context of spectral graph theory, which provides the necessary mathematical background and efficient numerical schemes to design fast localized convolutional filters on graphs. Importantly, the proposed technique offers the same linear computational complexity and constant learning complexity as classical CNNs, while being universal to any graph structure. Experiments on MNIST and 20NEWS demonstrate the ability of this novel deep learning system to learn local, stationary, and compositional features on graphs.

* Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 29 (2016) 
* NIPS 2016 final revision 

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