Models, code, and papers for "reinforcement learning":

Unsupervised Meta-Learning for Reinforcement Learning

Jun 12, 2018
Abhishek Gupta, Benjamin Eysenbach, Chelsea Finn, Sergey Levine

Meta-learning is a powerful tool that builds on multi-task learning to learn how to quickly adapt a model to new tasks. In the context of reinforcement learning, meta-learning algorithms can acquire reinforcement learning procedures to solve new problems more efficiently by meta-learning prior tasks. The performance of meta-learning algorithms critically depends on the tasks available for meta-training: in the same way that supervised learning algorithms generalize best to test points drawn from the same distribution as the training points, meta-learning methods generalize best to tasks from the same distribution as the meta-training tasks. In effect, meta-reinforcement learning offloads the design burden from algorithm design to task design. If we can automate the process of task design as well, we can devise a meta-learning algorithm that is truly automated. In this work, we take a step in this direction, proposing a family of unsupervised meta-learning algorithms for reinforcement learning. We describe a general recipe for unsupervised meta-reinforcement learning, and describe an effective instantiation of this approach based on a recently proposed unsupervised exploration technique and model-agnostic meta-learning. We also discuss practical and conceptual considerations for developing unsupervised meta-learning methods. Our experimental results demonstrate that unsupervised meta-reinforcement learning effectively acquires accelerated reinforcement learning procedures without the need for manual task design, significantly exceeds the performance of learning from scratch, and even matches performance of meta-learning methods that use hand-specified task distributions.

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Integration of Imitation Learning using GAIL and Reinforcement Learning using Task-achievement Rewards via Probabilistic Generative Model

Jul 03, 2019
Akira Kinose, Tadahiro Taniguchi

Integration of reinforcement learning and imitation learning is an important problem that has been studied for a long time in the field of intelligent robotics. Reinforcement learning optimizes policies to maximize the cumulative reward, whereas imitation learning attempts to extract general knowledge about the trajectories demonstrated by experts, i.e., demonstrators. Because each of them has their own drawbacks, methods combining them and compensating for each set of drawbacks have been explored thus far. However, many of the methods are heuristic and do not have a solid theoretical basis. In this paper, we present a new theory for integrating reinforcement and imitation learning by extending the probabilistic generative model framework for reinforcement learning, {\it plan by inference}. We develop a new probabilistic graphical model for reinforcement learning with multiple types of rewards and a probabilistic graphical model for Markov decision processes with multiple optimality emissions (pMDP-MO). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the integrated learning method of reinforcement learning and imitation learning can be formulated as a probabilistic inference of policies on pMDP-MO by considering the output of the discriminator in generative adversarial imitation learning as an additional optimal emission observation. We adapt the generative adversarial imitation learning and task-achievement reward to our proposed framework, achieving significantly better performance than agents trained with reinforcement learning or imitation learning alone. Experiments demonstrate that our framework successfully integrates imitation and reinforcement learning even when the number of demonstrators is only a few.

* Submitted to Advanced Robotics 

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Reinforcement Evolutionary Learning Method for self-learning

Oct 07, 2018
Kumarjit Pathak, Jitin Kapila

In statistical modelling the biggest threat is concept drift which makes the model gradually showing deteriorating performance over time. There are state of the art methodologies to detect the impact of concept drift, however general strategy considered to overcome the issue in performance is to rebuild or re-calibrate the model periodically as the variable patterns for the model changes significantly due to market change or consumer behavior change etc. Quantitative research is the most widely spread application of data science in Marketing or financial domain where applicability of state of the art reinforcement learning for auto-learning is less explored paradigm. Reinforcement learning is heavily dependent on having a simulated environment which is majorly available for gaming or online systems, to learn from the live feedback. However, there are some research happened on the area of online advertisement, pricing etc where due to the nature of the online learning environment scope of reinforcement learning is explored. Our proposed solution is a reinforcement learning based, true self-learning algorithm which can adapt to the data change or concept drift and auto learn and self-calibrate for the new patterns of the data solving the problem of concept drift. Keywords - Reinforcement learning, Genetic Algorithm, Q-learning, Classification modelling, CMA-ES, NES, Multi objective optimization, Concept drift, Population stability index, Incremental learning, F1-measure, Predictive Modelling, Self-learning, MCTS, AlphaGo, AlphaZero

* 5 figures 

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Some Insights into Lifelong Reinforcement Learning Systems

Jan 27, 2020
Changjian Li

A lifelong reinforcement learning system is a learning system that has the ability to learn through trail-and-error interaction with the environment over its lifetime. In this paper, I give some arguments to show that the traditional reinforcement learning paradigm fails to model this type of learning system. Some insights into lifelong reinforcement learning are provided, along with a simplistic prototype lifelong reinforcement learning system.

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Learning to drive via Apprenticeship Learning and Deep Reinforcement Learning

Jan 12, 2020
Wenhui Huang, Francesco Braghin, Zhuo Wang

With the implementation of reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms, current state-of-art autonomous vehicle technology have the potential to get closer to full automation. However, most of the applications have been limited to game domains or discrete action space which are far from the real world driving. Moreover, it is very tough to tune the parameters of reward mechanism since the driving styles vary a lot among the different users. For instance, an aggressive driver may prefer driving with high acceleration whereas some conservative drivers prefer a safer driving style. Therefore, we propose an apprenticeship learning in combination with deep reinforcement learning approach that allows the agent to learn the driving and stopping behaviors with continuous actions. We use gradient inverse reinforcement learning (GIRL) algorithm to recover the unknown reward function and employ REINFORCE as well as Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient algorithm (DDPG) to learn the optimal policy. The performance of our method is evaluated in simulation-based scenario and the results demonstrate that the agent performs human like driving and even better in some aspects after training.

* 7 pages, 11 figures, conference 

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Learning Robust Rewards with Adversarial Inverse Reinforcement Learning

Aug 13, 2018
Justin Fu, Katie Luo, Sergey Levine

Reinforcement learning provides a powerful and general framework for decision making and control, but its application in practice is often hindered by the need for extensive feature and reward engineering. Deep reinforcement learning methods can remove the need for explicit engineering of policy or value features, but still require a manually specified reward function. Inverse reinforcement learning holds the promise of automatic reward acquisition, but has proven exceptionally difficult to apply to large, high-dimensional problems with unknown dynamics. In this work, we propose adverserial inverse reinforcement learning (AIRL), a practical and scalable inverse reinforcement learning algorithm based on an adversarial reward learning formulation. We demonstrate that AIRL is able to recover reward functions that are robust to changes in dynamics, enabling us to learn policies even under significant variation in the environment seen during training. Our experiments show that AIRL greatly outperforms prior methods in these transfer settings.

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Deep Reinforcement Learning for Conversational AI

Sep 15, 2017
Mahipal Jadeja, Neelanshi Varia, Agam Shah

Deep reinforcement learning is revolutionizing the artificial intelligence field. Currently, it serves as a good starting point for constructing intelligent autonomous systems which offer a better knowledge of the visual world. It is possible to scale deep reinforcement learning with the use of deep learning and do amazing tasks such as use of pixels in playing video games. In this paper, key concepts of deep reinforcement learning including reward function, differences between reinforcement learning and supervised learning and models for implementation of reinforcement are discussed. Key challenges related to the implementation of reinforcement learning in conversational AI domain are identified as well as discussed in detail. Various conversational models which are based on deep reinforcement learning (as well as deep learning) are also discussed. In summary, this paper discusses key aspects of deep reinforcement learning which are crucial for designing an efficient conversational AI.

* SCAI'17-Search-Oriented Conversational AI (@ICTIR) 

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Reinforcement Learning: A Survey

May 01, 1996
L. P. Kaelbling, M. L. Littman, A. W. Moore

This paper surveys the field of reinforcement learning from a computer-science perspective. It is written to be accessible to researchers familiar with machine learning. Both the historical basis of the field and a broad selection of current work are summarized. Reinforcement learning is the problem faced by an agent that learns behavior through trial-and-error interactions with a dynamic environment. The work described here has a resemblance to work in psychology, but differs considerably in the details and in the use of the word ``reinforcement.'' The paper discusses central issues of reinforcement learning, including trading off exploration and exploitation, establishing the foundations of the field via Markov decision theory, learning from delayed reinforcement, constructing empirical models to accelerate learning, making use of generalization and hierarchy, and coping with hidden state. It concludes with a survey of some implemented systems and an assessment of the practical utility of current methods for reinforcement learning.

* Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, Vol 4, (1996), 237-285 
* See for any accompanying files 

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Learning To Reach Goals Without Reinforcement Learning

Dec 13, 2019
Dibya Ghosh, Abhishek Gupta, Justin Fu, Ashwin Reddy, Coline Devin, Benjamin Eysenbach, Sergey Levine

Imitation learning algorithms provide a simple and straightforward approach for training control policies via supervised learning. By maximizing the likelihood of good actions provided by an expert demonstrator, supervised imitation learning can produce effective policies without the algorithmic complexities and optimization challenges of reinforcement learning, at the cost of requiring an expert demonstrator to provide the demonstrations. In this paper, we ask: can we take insights from imitation learning to design algorithms that can effectively acquire optimal policies from scratch without any expert demonstrations? The key observation that makes this possible is that, in the multi-task setting, trajectories that are generated by a suboptimal policy can still serve as optimal examples for other tasks. In particular, when tasks correspond to different goals, every trajectory is a successful demonstration for the goal state that it actually reaches. We propose a simple algorithm for learning goal-reaching behaviors without any demonstrations, complicated user-provided reward functions, or complex reinforcement learning methods. Our method simply maximizes the likelihood of actions the agent actually took in its own previous rollouts, conditioned on the goal being the state that it actually reached. Although related variants of this approach have been proposed previously in imitation learning with demonstrations, we show how this approach can effectively learn goal-reaching policies from scratch. We present a theoretical result linking self-supervised imitation learning and reinforcement learning, and empirical results showing that it performs competitively with more complex reinforcement learning methods on a range of challenging goal reaching problems, while yielding advantages in terms of stability and use of offline data.

* First two authors contributed equally 

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Learning to Walk via Deep Reinforcement Learning

Dec 26, 2018
Tuomas Haarnoja, Aurick Zhou, Sehoon Ha, Jie Tan, George Tucker, Sergey Levine

Deep reinforcement learning suggests the promise of fully automated learning of robotic control policies that directly map sensory inputs to low-level actions. However, applying deep reinforcement learning methods on real-world robots is exceptionally difficult, due both to the sample complexity and, just as importantly, the sensitivity of such methods to hyperparameters. While hyperparameter tuning can be performed in parallel in simulated domains, it is usually impractical to tune hyperparameters directly on real-world robotic platforms, especially legged platforms like quadrupedal robots that can be damaged through extensive trial-and-error learning. In this paper, we develop a stable variant of the soft actor-critic deep reinforcement learning algorithm that requires minimal hyperparameter tuning, while also requiring only a modest number of trials to learn multilayer neural network policies. This algorithm is based on the framework of maximum entropy reinforcement learning, and automatically trades off exploration against exploitation by dynamically and automatically tuning a temperature parameter that determines the stochasticity of the policy. We show that this method achieves state-of-the-art performance on four standard benchmark environments. We then demonstrate that it can be used to learn quadrupedal locomotion gaits on a real-world Minitaur robot, learning to walk from scratch directly in the real world in two hours of training.

* Videos: . arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1812.05905 

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An FPGA-Based On-Device Reinforcement Learning Approach using Online Sequential Learning

May 10, 2020
Hirohisa Watanabe, Mineto Tsukada, Hiroki Matsutani

DQN (Deep Q-Network) is a method to perform Q-learning for reinforcement learning using deep neural networks. DQNs require large buffers for experience reply and rely on backpropagation based iterative optimization, making them difficult to be implemented on resource-limited edge devices. In this paper, we propose a lightweight on-device reinforcement learning approach for low-cost FPGA devices. It exploits a recently proposed neural-network based on-device learning approach that does not rely on the backpropagation method but uses ELM (Extreme Learning Machine) and OS-ELM (Online Sequential ELM) based training algorithms. In addition, we propose a combination of L2 regularization and spectral normalization for the on-device reinforcement learning, so that output values of the neural networks can be fit into a certain range and the reinforcement learning becomes stable. The proposed reinforcement learning approach is designed for Xilinx PYNQ-Z1 board as a low-cost FPGA platform. The experiment results using OpenAI Gym demonstrate that the proposed algorithm and its FPGA implementation complete a CartPole-v0 task 29.76x and 126.06x faster than a conventional DQN-based approach when the number of hidden-layer nodes is 64.

* 14 pages, 6 figures 

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Dex: Incremental Learning for Complex Environments in Deep Reinforcement Learning

Jun 19, 2017
Nick Erickson, Qi Zhao

This paper introduces Dex, a reinforcement learning environment toolkit specialized for training and evaluation of continual learning methods as well as general reinforcement learning problems. We also present the novel continual learning method of incremental learning, where a challenging environment is solved using optimal weight initialization learned from first solving a similar easier environment. We show that incremental learning can produce vastly superior results than standard methods by providing a strong baseline method across ten Dex environments. We finally develop a saliency method for qualitative analysis of reinforcement learning, which shows the impact incremental learning has on network attention.

* NIPS 2017 submission, 10 pages, 26 figures 

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Recruitment-imitation Mechanism for Evolutionary Reinforcement Learning

Dec 13, 2019
Shuai LΓΌ, Shuai Han, Wenbo Zhou, Junwei Zhang

Reinforcement learning, evolutionary algorithms and imitation learning are three principal methods to deal with continuous control tasks. Reinforcement learning is sample efficient, yet sensitive to hyper-parameters setting and needs efficient exploration; Evolutionary algorithms are stable, but with low sample efficiency; Imitation learning is both sample efficient and stable, however it requires the guidance of expert data. In this paper, we propose Recruitment-imitation Mechanism (RIM) for evolutionary reinforcement learning, a scalable framework that combines advantages of the three methods mentioned above. The core of this framework is a dual-actors and single critic reinforcement learning agent. This agent can recruit high-fitness actors from the population of evolutionary algorithms, which instructs itself to learn from experience replay buffer. At the same time, low-fitness actors in the evolutionary population can imitate behavior patterns of the reinforcement learning agent and improve their adaptability. Reinforcement and imitation learners in this framework can be replaced with any off-policy actor-critic reinforcement learner or data-driven imitation learner. We evaluate RIM on a series of benchmarks for continuous control tasks in Mujoco. The experimental results show that RIM outperforms prior evolutionary or reinforcement learning methods. The performance of RIM's components is significantly better than components of previous evolutionary reinforcement learning algorithm, and the recruitment using soft update enables reinforcement learning agent to learn faster than that using hard update.

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Deep Reinforcement Learning in System Optimization

Aug 07, 2019
Ameer Haj-Ali, Nesreen K. Ahmed, Ted Willke, Joseph Gonzalez, Krste Asanovic, Ion Stoica

The recent advancements in deep reinforcement learning have opened new horizons and opportunities to tackle various problems in system optimization. Such problems are generally tailored to delayed, aggregated, and sequential rewards, which is an inherent behavior in the reinforcement learning setting, where an agent collects rewards while exploring and exploiting the environment to maximize the long term reward. However, in some cases, it is not clear why deep reinforcement learning is a good fit for the problem. Sometimes, it does not perform better than the state-of-the-art solutions. And in other cases, random search or greedy algorithms could outperform deep reinforcement learning. In this paper, we review, discuss, and evaluate the recent trends of using deep reinforcement learning in system optimization. We propose a set of essential metrics to guide future works in evaluating the efficacy of using deep reinforcement learning in system optimization. Our evaluation includes challenges, the types of problems, their formulation in the deep reinforcement learning setting, embedding, the model used, efficiency, and robustness. We conclude with a discussion on open challenges and potential directions for pushing further the integration of reinforcement learning in system optimization.

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Learning to Learn: Meta-Critic Networks for Sample Efficient Learning

Jun 29, 2017
Flood Sung, Li Zhang, Tao Xiang, Timothy Hospedales, Yongxin Yang

We propose a novel and flexible approach to meta-learning for learning-to-learn from only a few examples. Our framework is motivated by actor-critic reinforcement learning, but can be applied to both reinforcement and supervised learning. The key idea is to learn a meta-critic: an action-value function neural network that learns to criticise any actor trying to solve any specified task. For supervised learning, this corresponds to the novel idea of a trainable task-parametrised loss generator. This meta-critic approach provides a route to knowledge transfer that can flexibly deal with few-shot and semi-supervised conditions for both reinforcement and supervised learning. Promising results are shown on both reinforcement and supervised learning problems.

* Technical report, 12 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables 

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Deep Tile Coder: an Efficient Sparse Representation Learning Approach with applications in Reinforcement Learning

Nov 19, 2019
Yangchen Pan

Representation learning is critical to the success of modern large-scale reinforcement learning systems. Previous works show that sparse representation can effectively reduce catastrophic interference and hence provide relatively stable and consistent boostrap targets when training reinforcement learning algorithms. Tile coding is a well-known sparse feature generation method in reinforcement learning. However, its application is largely restricted to small, low dimensional domains, as its computational and memory requirement grows exponentially as dimension increases. This paper proposes a simple and novel tile coding operation---deep tile coder, which adapts tile coding into deep learning setting, and can be easily scaled to high dimensional problems. The key distinction of our method with previous sparse representation learning method is that, we generate sparse feature by construction, while most previous works focus on designing regularization techniques. We are able to theoretically guarantee sparsity and importantly, our method ensures sparsity from the beginning of learning, without the need of tuning regularization weight. Furthermore, our approach maps from low dimension feature space to high dimension sparse feature space without introducing any additional training parameters. Our empirical demonstration covers classic discrete action control and Mujoco continuous robotics control problems. We show that reinforcement learning algorithms equipped with our deep tile coder achieves superior performance. To our best knowledge, our work is the first to demonstrate successful application of sparse representation learning method in online deep reinforcement learning algorithms for challenging tasks without using a target network.

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Off-Policy Deep Reinforcement Learning without Exploration

Dec 07, 2018
Scott Fujimoto, David Meger, Doina Precup

Reinforcement learning traditionally considers the task of balancing exploration and exploitation. This work examines batch reinforcement learning--the task of maximally exploiting a given batch of off-policy data, without further data collection. We demonstrate that due to errors introduced by extrapolation, standard off-policy deep reinforcement learning algorithms, such as DQN and DDPG, are only capable of learning with data correlated to their current policy, making them ineffective for most off-policy applications. We introduce a novel class of off-policy algorithms, batch-constrained reinforcement learning, which restricts the action space to force the agent towards behaving on-policy with respect to a subset of the given data. We extend this notion to deep reinforcement learning, and to the best of our knowledge, present the first continuous control deep reinforcement learning algorithm which can learn effectively from uncorrelated off-policy data.

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Learning through Probing: a decentralized reinforcement learning architecture for social dilemmas

Sep 26, 2018
Nicolas Anastassacos, Mirco Musolesi

Multi-agent reinforcement learning has received significant interest in recent years notably due to the advancements made in deep reinforcement learning which have allowed for the developments of new architectures and learning algorithms. Using social dilemmas as the training ground, we present a novel learning architecture, Learning through Probing (LTP), where agents utilize a probing mechanism to incorporate how their opponent's behavior changes when an agent takes an action. We use distinct training phases and adjust rewards according to the overall outcome of the experiences accounting for changes to the opponents behavior. We introduce a parameter eta to determine the significance of these future changes to opponent behavior. When applied to the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma (IPD), LTP agents demonstrate that they can learn to cooperate with each other, achieving higher average cumulative rewards than other reinforcement learning methods while also maintaining good performance in playing against static agents that are present in Axelrod tournaments. We compare this method with traditional reinforcement learning algorithms and agent-tracking techniques to highlight key differences and potential applications. We also draw attention to the differences between solving games and societal-like interactions and analyze the training of Q-learning agents in makeshift societies. This is to emphasize how cooperation may emerge in societies and demonstrate this using environments where interactions with opponents are determined through a random encounter format of the IPD.

* 9 pages, 4 figures 

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Is a Good Representation Sufficient for Sample Efficient Reinforcement Learning?

Nov 03, 2019
Simon S. Du, Sham M. Kakade, Ruosong Wang, Lin F. Yang

Modern deep learning methods provide an effective means to learn good representations. However, is a good representation itself sufficient for efficient reinforcement learning? This question is largely unexplored, and the extant body of literature mainly focuses on conditions which permit efficient reinforcement learning with little understanding of what are necessary conditions for efficient reinforcement learning. This work provides strong negative results for reinforcement learning methods with function approximation for which a good representation (feature extractor) is known to the agent, focusing on natural representational conditions relevant to value-based learning and policy-based learning. For value-based learning, we show that even if the agent has a highly accurate linear representation, the agent still needs to sample exponentially many trajectories in order to find a near-optimal policy. For policy-based learning, we show even if the agent's linear representation is capable of perfectly representing the optimal policy, the agent still needs to sample exponentially many trajectories in order to find a near-optimal policy. These lower bounds highlight the fact that having a good (value-based or policy-based) representation in and of itself is insufficient for efficient reinforcement learning. In particular, these results provide new insights into why the existing provably efficient reinforcement learning methods rely on further assumptions, which are often model-based in nature. Additionally, our lower bounds imply exponential separations in the sample complexity between 1) value-based learning with perfect representation and value-based learning with a good-but-not-perfect representation, 2) value-based learning and policy-based learning, 3) policy-based learning and supervised learning and 4) reinforcement learning and imitation learning.

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