Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!

Chrome logo  Add to Chrome

Firefox logo Add to Firefox

"autonomous cars": models, code, and papers

CarSNN: An Efficient Spiking Neural Network for Event-Based Autonomous Cars on the Loihi Neuromorphic Research Processor

Jul 01, 2021
Alberto Viale, Alberto Marchisio, Maurizio Martina, Guido Masera, Muhammad Shafique

Autonomous Driving (AD) related features provide new forms of mobility that are also beneficial for other kind of intelligent and autonomous systems like robots, smart transportation, and smart industries. For these applications, the decisions need to be made fast and in real-time. Moreover, in the quest for electric mobility, this task must follow low power policy, without affecting much the autonomy of the mean of transport or the robot. These two challenges can be tackled using the emerging Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs). When deployed on a specialized neuromorphic hardware, SNNs can achieve high performance with low latency and low power consumption. In this paper, we use an SNN connected to an event-based camera for facing one of the key problems for AD, i.e., the classification between cars and other objects. To consume less power than traditional frame-based cameras, we use a Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS). The experiments are made following an offline supervised learning rule, followed by mapping the learnt SNN model on the Intel Loihi Neuromorphic Research Chip. Our best experiment achieves an accuracy on offline implementation of 86%, that drops to 83% when it is ported onto the Loihi Chip. The Neuromorphic Hardware implementation has maximum 0.72 ms of latency for every sample, and consumes only 310 mW. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first implementation of an event-based car classifier on a Neuromorphic Chip.

* Accepted for publication at IJCNN 2021 
  
Access Paper or Ask Questions

Autonomous Vehicles on the Edge: A Survey on Autonomous Vehicle Racing

Feb 14, 2022
Johannes Betz, Hongrui Zheng, Alexander Liniger, Ugo Rosolia, Phillip Karle, Madhur Behl, Venkat Krovi, Rahul Mangharam

The rising popularity of self-driving cars has led to the emergence of a new research field in the recent years: Autonomous racing. Researchers are developing software and hardware for high performance race vehicles which aim to operate autonomously on the edge of the vehicles limits: High speeds, high accelerations, low reaction times, highly uncertain, dynamic and adversarial environments. This paper represents the first holistic survey that covers the research in the field of autonomous racing. We focus on the field of autonomous racecars only and display the algorithms, methods and approaches that are used in the fields of perception, planning and control as well as end-to-end learning. Further, with an increasing number of autonomous racing competitions, researchers now have access to a range of high performance platforms to test and evaluate their autonomy algorithms. This survey presents a comprehensive overview of the current autonomous racing platforms emphasizing both the software-hardware co-evolution to the current stage. Finally, based on additional discussion with leading researchers in the field we conclude with a summary of open research challenges that will guide future researchers in this field.

* 29 pages, 12 figures, 6 tables, 242 references 
  
Access Paper or Ask Questions

Reinforcement Learning Based Safe Decision Making for Highway Autonomous Driving

May 13, 2021
Arash Mohammadhasani, Hamed Mehrivash, Alan Lynch, Zhan Shu

In this paper, we develop a safe decision-making method for self-driving cars in a multi-lane, single-agent setting. The proposed approach utilizes deep reinforcement learning (RL) to achieve a high-level policy for safe tactical decision-making. We address two major challenges that arise solely in autonomous navigation. First, the proposed algorithm ensures that collisions never happen, and therefore accelerate the learning process. Second, the proposed algorithm takes into account the unobservable states in the environment. These states appear mainly due to the unpredictable behavior of other agents, such as cars, and pedestrians, and make the Markov Decision Process (MDP) problematic when dealing with autonomous navigation. Simulations from a well-known self-driving car simulator demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method

  
Access Paper or Ask Questions

On Infusing Reachability-Based Safety Assurance within Probabilistic Planning Frameworks for Human-Robot Vehicle Interactions

Dec 29, 2018
Karen Leung, Edward Schmerling, Mo Chen, John Talbot, J. Christian Gerdes, Marco Pavone

Action anticipation, intent prediction, and proactive behavior are all desirable characteristics for autonomous driving policies in interactive scenarios. Paramount, however, is ensuring safety on the road --- a key challenge in doing so is accounting for uncertainty in human driver actions without unduly impacting planner performance. This paper introduces a minimally-interventional safety controller operating within an autonomous vehicle control stack with the role of ensuring collision-free interaction with an externally controlled (e.g., human-driven) counterpart. We leverage reachability analysis to construct a real-time (100Hz) controller that serves the dual role of (1) tracking an input trajectory from a higher-level planning algorithm using model predictive control, and (2) assuring safety through maintaining the availability of a collision-free escape maneuver as a persistent constraint regardless of whatever future actions the other car takes. A full-scale steer-by-wire platform is used to conduct traffic weaving experiments wherein the two cars, initially side-by-side, must swap lanes in a limited amount of time and distance, emulating cars merging onto/off of a highway. We demonstrate that, with our control stack, the autonomous vehicle is able to avoid collision even when the other car defies the planner's expectations and takes dangerous actions, either carelessly or with the intent to collide, and otherwise deviates minimally from the planned trajectory to the extent required to maintain safety.

* Presented at the International Symposium on Experimental Robotics, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2018 
  
Access Paper or Ask Questions

On Infusing Reachability-Based Safety Assurance within Planning Frameworks for Human-Robot Vehicle Interactions

Dec 06, 2020
Karen Leung, Edward Schmerling, Mengxuan Zhang, Mo Chen, John Talbot, J. Christian Gerdes, Marco Pavone

Action anticipation, intent prediction, and proactive behavior are all desirable characteristics for autonomous driving policies in interactive scenarios. Paramount, however, is ensuring safety on the road -- a key challenge in doing so is accounting for uncertainty in human driver actions without unduly impacting planner performance. This paper introduces a minimally-interventional safety controller operating within an autonomous vehicle control stack with the role of ensuring collision-free interaction with an externally controlled (e.g., human-driven) counterpart while respecting static obstacles such as a road boundary wall. We leverage reachability analysis to construct a real-time (100Hz) controller that serves the dual role of (i) tracking an input trajectory from a higher-level planning algorithm using model predictive control, and (ii) assuring safety by maintaining the availability of a collision-free escape maneuver as a persistent constraint regardless of whatever future actions the other car takes. A full-scale steer-by-wire platform is used to conduct traffic weaving experiments wherein two cars, initially side-by-side, must swap lanes in a limited amount of time and distance, emulating cars merging onto/off of a highway. We demonstrate that, with our control stack, the autonomous vehicle is able to avoid collision even when the other car defies the planner's expectations and takes dangerous actions, either carelessly or with the intent to collide, and otherwise deviates minimally from the planned trajectory to the extent required to maintain safety.

* International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 39, no. 10-11, pp. 1326--1345, 2020 
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1812.11315 
  
Access Paper or Ask Questions

MultiNet: Multi-Modal Multi-Task Learning for Autonomous Driving

Aug 23, 2018
Sauhaarda Chowdhuri, Tushar Pankaj, Karl Zipser

Several deep learning approaches have been applied to the autonomous driving task, many employing end-to-end deep neural networks. Autonomous driving is complex, utilizing multiple behavioral modalities ranging from lane changing to turning and stopping. However, most existing approaches do not factor in the different behavioral modalities of the driving task into the training strategy. This paper describes a technique for using Multi-Modal Multi-Task Learning, which we denote as MultiNet which considers multiple behavioral modalities as distinct modes of operation for an end-to-end autonomous deep neural network utilizing the insertion of modal information as secondary input data. Using labeled data from hours of driving our fleet of 1/10th scale model cars, we trained different neural networks to imitate the steering angle and driving speed of human control of a car. We show that in each case, MultiNet models outperform networks trained on individual tasks, while using a fraction of the number of parameters.

* 6 pages, 8 figures 
  
Access Paper or Ask Questions

Blaming humans in autonomous vehicle accidents: Shared responsibility across levels of automation

Mar 21, 2018
Edmond Awad, Sydney Levine, Max Kleiman-Weiner, Sohan Dsouza, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Azim Shariff, Jean-François Bonnefon, Iyad Rahwan

When a semi-autonomous car crashes and harms someone, how are blame and causal responsibility distributed across the human and machine drivers? In this article, we consider cases in which a pedestrian was hit and killed by a car being operated under shared control of a primary and a secondary driver. We find that when only one driver makes an error, that driver receives the blame and is considered causally responsible for the harm, regardless of whether that driver is a machine or a human. However, when both drivers make errors in cases of shared control between a human and a machine, the blame and responsibility attributed to the machine is reduced. This finding portends a public under-reaction to the malfunctioning AI components of semi-autonomous cars and therefore has a direct policy implication: a bottom-up regulatory scheme (which operates through tort law that is adjudicated through the jury system) could fail to properly regulate the safety of shared-control vehicles; instead, a top-down scheme (enacted through federal laws) may be called for.

  
Access Paper or Ask Questions

Algorithmic Ethics: Formalization and Verification of Autonomous Vehicle Obligations

May 06, 2021
Colin Shea-Blymyer, Houssam Abbas

We develop a formal framework for automatic reasoning about the obligations of autonomous cyber-physical systems, including their social and ethical obligations. Obligations, permissions and prohibitions are distinct from a system's mission, and are a necessary part of specifying advanced, adaptive AI-equipped systems. They need a dedicated deontic logic of obligations to formalize them. Most existing deontic logics lack corresponding algorithms and system models that permit automatic verification. We demonstrate how a particular deontic logic, Dominance Act Utilitarianism (DAU), is a suitable starting point for formalizing the obligations of autonomous systems like self-driving cars. We demonstrate its usefulness by formalizing a subset of Responsibility-Sensitive Safety (RSS) in DAU; RSS is an industrial proposal for how self-driving cars should and should not behave in traffic. We show that certain logical consequences of RSS are undesirable, indicating a need to further refine the proposal. We also demonstrate how obligations can change over time, which is necessary for long-term autonomy. We then demonstrate a model-checking algorithm for DAU formulas on weighted transition systems, and illustrate it by model-checking obligations of a self-driving car controller from the literature.

* To be published in ACT Transactions on Cyber-Physical Systems Special Issue on Artificial Intelligence and Cyber-Physical Systems. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2009.00738 
  
Access Paper or Ask Questions

FRSign: A Large-Scale Traffic Light Dataset for Autonomous Trains

Feb 05, 2020
Jeanine Harb, Nicolas Rébéna, Raphaël Chosidow, Grégoire Roblin, Roman Potarusov, Hatem Hajri

In the realm of autonomous transportation, there have been many initiatives for open-sourcing self-driving cars datasets, but much less for alternative methods of transportation such as trains. In this paper, we aim to bridge the gap by introducing FRSign, a large-scale and accurate dataset for vision-based railway traffic light detection and recognition. Our recordings were made on selected running trains in France and benefited from carefully hand-labeled annotations. An illustrative dataset which corresponds to ten percent of the acquired data to date is published in open source with the paper. It contains more than 100,000 images illustrating six types of French railway traffic lights and their possible color combinations, together with the relevant information regarding their acquisition such as date, time, sensor parameters, and bounding boxes. This dataset is published in open-source at the address \url{https://frsign.irt-systemx.fr}. We compare, analyze various properties of the dataset and provide metrics to express its variability. We also discuss specific challenges and particularities related to autonomous trains in comparison to autonomous cars.

  
Access Paper or Ask Questions

Autonomous Overtaking in Gran Turismo Sport Using Curriculum Reinforcement Learning

Mar 26, 2021
Yunlong Song, HaoChih Lin, Elia Kaufmann, Peter Duerr, Davide Scaramuzza

Professional race car drivers can execute extreme overtaking maneuvers. However, conventional systems for autonomous overtaking rely on either simplified assumptions about the vehicle dynamics or solving expensive trajectory optimization problems online. When the vehicle is approaching its physical limits, existing model-based controllers struggled to handle highly nonlinear dynamics and cannot leverage the large volume of data generated by simulation or real-world driving. To circumvent these limitations, this work proposes a new learning-based method to tackle the autonomous overtaking problem. We evaluate our approach using Gran Turismo Sport -- a world-leading car racing simulator known for its detailed dynamic modeling of various cars and tracks. By leveraging curriculum learning, our approach leads to faster convergence as well as increased performance compared to vanilla reinforcement learning. As a result, the trained controller outperforms the built-in model-based game AI and achieves comparable overtaking performance with an experienced human driver.

  
Access Paper or Ask Questions
<<
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
>>