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"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

Text-based classification of interviews for mental health -- juxtaposing the state of the art

Jul 29, 2020
Joppe Valentijn Wouts

Currently, the state of the art for classification of psychiatric illness is based on audio-based classification. This thesis aims to design and evaluate a state of the art text classification network on this challenge. The hypothesis is that a well designed text-based approach poses a strong competition against the state-of-the-art audio based approaches. Dutch natural language models are being limited by the scarcity of pre-trained monolingual NLP models, as a result Dutch natural language models have a low capture of long range semantic dependencies over sentences. For this issue, this thesis presents belabBERT, a new Dutch language model extending the RoBERTa[15] architecture. belabBERT is trained on a large Dutch corpus (+32GB) of web crawled texts. After this thesis evaluates the strength of text-based classification, a brief exploration is done, extending the framework to a hybrid text- and audio-based classification. The goal of this hybrid framework is to show the principle of hybridisation with a very basic audio-classification network. The overall goal is to create the foundations for a hybrid psychiatric illness classification, by proving that the new text-based classification is already a strong stand-alone solution.

* 33 pages, 7 figures, belabBERT is available on 

Enhancement of Short Text Clustering by Iterative Classification

Jan 31, 2020
Md Rashadul Hasan Rakib, Norbert Zeh, Magdalena Jankowska, Evangelos Milios

Short text clustering is a challenging task due to the lack of signal contained in such short texts. In this work, we propose iterative classification as a method to b o ost the clustering quality (e.g., accuracy) of short texts. Given a clustering of short texts obtained using an arbitrary clustering algorithm, iterative classification applies outlier removal to obtain outlier-free clusters. Then it trains a classification algorithm using the non-outliers based on their cluster distributions. Using the trained classification model, iterative classification reclassifies the outliers to obtain a new set of clusters. By repeating this several times, we obtain a much improved clustering of texts. Our experimental results show that the proposed clustering enhancement method not only improves the clustering quality of different clustering methods (e.g., k-means, k-means--, and hierarchical clustering) but also outperforms the state-of-the-art short text clustering methods on several short text datasets by a statistically significant margin.

* 30 pages, 2 figures 

Explicit Interaction Model towards Text Classification

Nov 23, 2018
Cunxiao Du, Zhaozheng Chin, Fuli Feng, Lei Zhu, Tian Gan, Liqiang Nie

Text classification is one of the fundamental tasks in natural language processing. Recently, deep neural networks have achieved promising performance in the text classification task compared to shallow models. Despite of the significance of deep models, they ignore the fine-grained (matching signals between words and classes) classification clues since their classifications mainly rely on the text-level representations. To address this problem, we introduce the interaction mechanism to incorporate word-level matching signals into the text classification task. In particular, we design a novel framework, EXplicit interAction Model (dubbed as EXAM), equipped with the interaction mechanism. We justified the proposed approach on several benchmark datasets including both multi-label and multi-class text classification tasks. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method. As a byproduct, we have released the codes and parameter settings to facilitate other researches.

* AAAI 2019 
* 8 pages 

CSTR: A Classification Perspective on Scene Text Recognition

Feb 22, 2021
Hongxiang Cai, Jun Sun, Yichao Xiong

The prevalent perspectives of scene text recognition are from sequence to sequence (seq2seq) and segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new perspective on scene text recognition, in which we model the scene text recognition as an image classification problem. Based on the image classification perspective, a scene text recognition model is proposed, which is named as CSTR. The CSTR model consists of a series of convolutional layers and a global average pooling layer at the end, followed by independent multi-class classification heads, each of which predicts the corresponding character of the word sequence in input image. The CSTR model is easy to train using parallel cross entropy losses. CSTR is as simple as image classification models like ResNet \cite{he2016deep} which makes it easy to implement, and the fully convolutional neural network architecture makes it efficient to train and deploy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the classification perspective on scene text recognition with thorough experiments. Futhermore, CSTR achieves nearly state-of-the-art performance on six public benchmarks including regular text, irregular text. The code will be available at

* 10 pages, 4 figures 

Hierarchical Text Classification of Urdu News using Deep Neural Network

Jul 07, 2021
Taimoor Ahmed Javed, Waseem Shahzad, Umair Arshad

Digital text is increasing day by day on the internet. It is very challenging to classify a large and heterogeneous collection of data, which require improved information processing methods to organize text. To classify large size of corpus, one common approach is to use hierarchical text classification, which aims to classify textual data in a hierarchical structure. Several approaches have been proposed to tackle classification of text but most of the research has been done on English language. This paper proposes a deep learning model for hierarchical text classification of news in Urdu language - consisting of 51,325 sentences from 8 online news websites belonging to the following genres: Sports; Technology; and Entertainment. The objectives of this paper are twofold: (1) to develop a large human-annotated dataset of news in Urdu language for hierarchical text classification; and (2) to classify Urdu news hierarchically using our proposed model based on LSTM mechanism named as Hierarchical Multi-layer LSTMs (HMLSTM). Our model consists of two modules: Text Representing Layer, for obtaining text representation in which we use Word2vec embedding to transform the words to vector and Urdu Hierarchical LSTM Layer (UHLSTML) an end-to-end fully connected deep LSTMs network to perform automatic feature learning, we train one LSTM layer for each level of the class hierarchy. We have performed extensive experiments on our self created dataset named as Urdu News Dataset for Hierarchical Text Classification (UNDHTC). The result shows that our proposed method is very effective for hierarchical text classification and it outperforms baseline methods significantly and also achieved good results as compare to deep neural model.

* 22 pages with 16 figures 

Text classification with word embedding regularization and soft similarity measure

Mar 10, 2020
Vít Novotný, Eniafe Festus Ayetiran, Michal Štefánik, Petr Sojka

Since the seminal work of Mikolov et al., word embeddings have become the preferred word representations for many natural language processing tasks. Document similarity measures extracted from word embeddings, such as the soft cosine measure (SCM) and the Word Mover's Distance (WMD), were reported to achieve state-of-the-art performance on semantic text similarity and text classification. Despite the strong performance of the WMD on text classification and semantic text similarity, its super-cubic average time complexity is impractical. The SCM has quadratic worst-case time complexity, but its performance on text classification has never been compared with the WMD. Recently, two word embedding regularization techniques were shown to reduce storage and memory costs, and to improve training speed, document processing speed, and task performance on word analogy, word similarity, and semantic text similarity. However, the effect of these techniques on text classification has not yet been studied. In our work, we investigate the individual and joint effect of the two word embedding regularization techniques on the document processing speed and the task performance of the SCM and the WMD on text classification. For evaluation, we use the $k$NN classifier and six standard datasets: BBCSPORT, TWITTER, OHSUMED, REUTERS-21578, AMAZON, and 20NEWS. We show 39% average $k$NN test error reduction with regularized word embeddings compared to non-regularized word embeddings. We describe a practical procedure for deriving such regularized embeddings through Cholesky factorization. We also show that the SCM with regularized word embeddings significantly outperforms the WMD on text classification and is over 10,000 times faster.


Many-Class Text Classification with Matching

May 23, 2022
Yi Song, Yuxian Gu, Minlie Huang

In this work, we formulate \textbf{T}ext \textbf{C}lassification as a \textbf{M}atching problem between the text and the labels, and propose a simple yet effective framework named TCM. Compared with previous text classification approaches, TCM takes advantage of the fine-grained semantic information of the classification labels, which helps distinguish each class better when the class number is large, especially in low-resource scenarios. TCM is also easy to implement and is compatible with various large pretrained language models. We evaluate TCM on 4 text classification datasets (each with 20+ labels) in both few-shot and full-data settings, and this model demonstrates significant improvements over other text classification paradigms. We also conduct extensive experiments with different variants of TCM and discuss the underlying factors of its success. Our method and analyses offer a new perspective on text classification.

* 7 pages 

Dual-State Capsule Networks for Text Classification

Sep 10, 2021
Piyumal Demotte, Surangika Ranathunga

Text classification systems based on contextual embeddings are not viable options for many of the low resource languages. On the other hand, recently introduced capsule networks have shown performance in par with these text classification models. Thus, they could be considered as a viable alternative for text classification for languages that do not have pre-trained contextual embedding models. However, current capsule networks depend upon spatial patterns without considering the sequential features of the text. They are also sub-optimal in capturing the context-level information in longer sequences. This paper presents a novel Dual-State Capsule (DS-Caps) network-based technique for text classification, which is optimized to mitigate these issues. Two varieties of states, namely sentence-level and word-level, are integrated with capsule layers to capture deeper context-level information for language modeling. The dynamic routing process among capsules was also optimized using the context-level information obtained through sentence-level states. The DS-Caps networks outperform the existing capsule network architectures for multiple datasets, particularly for tasks with longer sequences of text. We also demonstrate the superiority of DS-Caps in text classification for a low resource language.

* 9 pages 

Understanding Graph Convolutional Networks for Text Classification

Mar 30, 2022
Soyeon Caren Han, Zihan Yuan, Kunze Wang, Siqu Long, Josiah Poon

Graph Convolutional Networks (GCN) have been effective at tasks that have rich relational structure and can preserve global structure information of a dataset in graph embeddings. Recently, many researchers focused on examining whether GCNs could handle different Natural Language Processing tasks, especially text classification. While applying GCNs to text classification is well-studied, its graph construction techniques, such as node/edge selection and their feature representation, and the optimal GCN learning mechanism in text classification is rather neglected. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of the role of node and edge embeddings in a graph and its GCN learning techniques in text classification. Our analysis is the first of its kind and provides useful insights into the importance of each graph node/edge construction mechanism when applied at the GCN training/testing in different text classification benchmarks, as well as under its semi-supervised environment.

* AAAI 2022 on DLG 

A hybrid learning algorithm for text classification

Sep 23, 2010
S. M. Kamruzzaman, Farhana Haider

Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. Existing supervised learning algorithms to automatically classify text need sufficient documents to learn accurately. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification that requires fewer documents for training. Instead of using words, word relation i.e association rules from these words is used to derive feature set from preclassified text documents. The concept of Naive Bayes classifier is then used on derived features and finally only a single concept of Genetic Algorithm has been added for final classification. Experimental results show that the classifier build this way is more accurate than the existing text classification systems.

* Proc. 3rd International Conference on Electrical & Computer Engineering (ICECE 2004), Dhaka Bangladesh, pp. 577-580, Dec. 2004 
* 4 pages, International Conference