Progress on many Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, such as text classification, is driven by objective, reproducible and scalable evaluation via publicly available benchmarks. However, these are not always representative of real-world scenarios where text classifiers are employed, such as sentiment analysis or misinformation detection. In this position paper, we put forward two points that aim to alleviate this problem. First, we propose to extend text classification benchmarks to evaluate the explainability of text classifiers. We review challenges associated with objectively evaluating the capabilities to produce valid explanations which leads us to the second main point: We propose to ground these benchmarks in human-centred applications, for example by using social media, gamification or to learn explainability metrics from human judgements.
A new development in NLP is the construction of hyperbolic word embeddings. As opposed to their Euclidean counterparts, hyperbolic embeddings are represented not by vectors, but by points in hyperbolic space. This makes the most common basic scheme for constructing document representations, namely the averaging of word vectors, meaningless in the hyperbolic setting. We reinterpret the vector mean as the centroid of the points represented by the vectors, and investigate various hyperbolic centroid schemes and their effectiveness at text classification.
Multi-label text classification (MLTC) is one of the key tasks in natural language processing. It aims to assign multiple target labels to one document. Due to the uneven popularity of labels, the number of documents per label follows a long-tailed distribution in most cases. It is much more challenging to learn classifiers for data-scarce tail labels than for data-rich head labels. The main reason is that head labels usually have sufficient information, e.g., a large intra-class diversity, while tail labels do not. In response, we propose a Pairwise Instance Relation Augmentation Network (PIRAN) to augment tailed-label documents for balancing tail labels and head labels. PIRAN consists of a relation collector and an instance generator. The former aims to extract the document pairwise relations from head labels. Taking these relations as perturbations, the latter tries to generate new document instances in high-level feature space around the limited given tailed-label instances. Meanwhile, two regularizers (diversity and consistency) are designed to constrain the generation process. The consistency-regularizer encourages the variance of tail labels to be close to head labels and further balances the whole datasets. And diversity-regularizer makes sure the generated instances have diversity and avoids generating redundant instances. Extensive experimental results on three benchmark datasets demonstrate that PIRAN consistently outperforms the SOTA methods, and dramatically improves the performance of tail labels.
Few-Shot Text Classification (FSTC) imitates humans to learn a new text classifier efficiently with only few examples, by leveraging prior knowledge from historical tasks. However, most prior works assume that all the tasks are sampled from a single data source, which cannot adapt to real-world scenarios where tasks are heterogeneous and lie in different distributions. As such, existing methods may suffer from their globally knowledge-shared mechanisms to handle the task heterogeneity. On the other hand, inherent task relation are not explicitly captured, making task knowledge unorganized and hard to transfer to new tasks. Thus, we explore a new FSTC setting where tasks can come from a diverse range of data sources. To address the task heterogeneity, we propose a self-supervised hierarchical task clustering (SS-HTC) method. SS-HTC not only customizes cluster-specific knowledge by dynamically organizing heterogeneous tasks into different clusters in hierarchical levels but also disentangles underlying relations between tasks to improve the interpretability. Extensive experiments on five public FSTC benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of SS-HTC.
Recent advances in large pretrained language models have increased attention to zero-shot text classification. In particular, models finetuned on natural language inference datasets have been widely adopted as zero-shot classifiers due to their promising results and off-the-shelf availability. However, the fact that such models are unfamiliar with the target task can lead to instability and performance issues. We propose a plug-and-play method to bridge this gap using a simple self-training approach, requiring only the class names along with an unlabeled dataset, and without the need for domain expertise or trial and error. We show that fine-tuning the zero-shot classifier on its most confident predictions leads to significant performance gains across a wide range of text classification tasks, presumably since self-training adapts the zero-shot model to the task at hand.
Recently, Logic Explained Networks (LENs) have been proposed as explainable-by-design neural models providing logic explanations for their predictions. However, these models have only been applied to vision and tabular data, and they mostly favour the generation of global explanations, while local ones tend to be noisy and verbose. For these reasons, we propose LENp, improving local explanations by perturbing input words, and we test it on text classification. Our results show that (i) LENp provides better local explanations than LIME in terms of sensitivity and faithfulness, and (ii) logic explanations are more useful and user-friendly than feature scoring provided by LIME as attested by a human survey.
Text classification is a very classic NLP task, but it has two prominent shortcomings: On the one hand, text classification is deeply domain-dependent. That is, a classifier trained on the corpus of one domain may not perform so well in another domain. On the other hand, text classification models require a lot of annotated data for training. However, for some domains, there may not exist enough annotated data. Therefore, it is valuable to investigate how to efficiently utilize text data from different domains to improve the performance of models in various domains. Some multi-domain text classification models are trained by adversarial training to extract shared features among all domains and the specific features of each domain. We noted that the distinctness of the domain-specific features is different, so in this paper, we propose to use a curriculum learning strategy based on keyword weight ranking to improve the performance of multi-domain text classification models. The experimental results on the Amazon review and FDU-MTL datasets show that our curriculum learning strategy effectively improves the performance of multi-domain text classification models based on adversarial learning and outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
The emergence of pre-trained language models (PLMs) has shown great success in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks including text classification. Due to the minimal to no feature engineering required when using these models, PLMs are becoming the de facto choice for any NLP task. However, for domain-specific corpora (e.g., financial, legal, and industrial), fine-tuning a pre-trained model for a specific task has shown to provide a performance improvement. In this paper, we compare the performance of four different PLMs on three public domain-free datasets and a real-world dataset containing domain-specific words, against a simple SVM linear classifier with TFIDF vectorized text. The experimental results on the four datasets show that using PLMs, even fine-tuned, do not provide significant gain over the linear SVM classifier. Hence, we recommend that for text classification tasks, traditional SVM along with careful feature engineering can pro-vide a cheaper and superior performance than PLMs.
In this paper, a deep learning-based model for 3D human motion generation from the text is proposed via gesture action classification and an autoregressive model. The model focuses on generating special gestures that express human thinking, such as waving and nodding. To achieve the goal, the proposed method predicts expression from the sentences using a text classification model based on a pretrained language model and generates gestures using the gate recurrent unit-based autoregressive model. Especially, we proposed the loss for the embedding space for restoring raw motions and generating intermediate motions well. Moreover, the novel data augmentation method and stop token are proposed to generate variable length motions. To evaluate the text classification model and 3D human motion generation model, a gesture action classification dataset and action-based gesture dataset are collected. With several experiments, the proposed method successfully generates perceptually natural and realistic 3D human motion from the text. Moreover, we verified the effectiveness of the proposed method using a public-available action recognition dataset to evaluate cross-dataset generalization performance.
Uncertainty approximation in text classification is an important area with applications in domain adaptation and interpretability. The most widely used uncertainty approximation method is Monte Carlo Dropout, which is computationally expensive as it requires multiple forward passes through the model. A cheaper alternative is to simply use a softmax to estimate model uncertainty. However, prior work has indicated that the softmax can generate overconfident uncertainty estimates and can thus be tricked into producing incorrect predictions. In this paper, we perform a thorough empirical analysis of both methods on five datasets with two base neural architectures in order to reveal insight into the trade-offs between the two. We compare the methods' uncertainty approximations and downstream text classification performance, while weighing their performance against their computational complexity as a cost-benefit analysis, by measuring runtime (cost) and the downstream performance (benefit). We find that, while Monte Carlo produces the best uncertainty approximations, using a simple softmax leads to competitive uncertainty estimation for text classification at a much lower computational cost, suggesting that softmax can in fact be a sufficient uncertainty estimate when computational resources are a concern.