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Models, code, and papers for "Text Classification"

Text Classification using Association Rule with a Hybrid Concept of Naive Bayes Classifier and Genetic Algorithm

Sep 25, 2010
S. M. Kamruzzaman, Farhana Haider, Ahmed Ryadh Hasan

Text classification is the automated assignment of natural language texts to predefined categories based on their content. Text classification is the primary requirement of text retrieval systems, which retrieve texts in response to a user query, and text understanding systems, which transform text in some way such as producing summaries, answering questions or extracting data. Now a day the demand of text classification is increasing tremendously. Keeping this demand into consideration, new and updated techniques are being developed for the purpose of automated text classification. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification. Instead of using words, word relation i.e. association rules is used to derive feature set from pre-classified text documents. The concept of Naive Bayes Classifier is then used on derived features and finally a concept of Genetic Algorithm has been added for final classification. A system based on the proposed algorithm has been implemented and tested. The experimental results show that the proposed system works as a successful text classifier.

* Proc. 7th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (ICCIT-2004), Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp. 682-687, Dec. 2004 
* 6 Pages, International Conference 

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A Hierarchical End-to-End Model for Jointly Improving Text Summarization and Sentiment Classification

May 30, 2018
Shuming Ma, Xu Sun, Junyang Lin, Xuancheng Ren

Text summarization and sentiment classification both aim to capture the main ideas of the text but at different levels. Text summarization is to describe the text within a few sentences, while sentiment classification can be regarded as a special type of summarization which "summarizes" the text into a even more abstract fashion, i.e., a sentiment class. Based on this idea, we propose a hierarchical end-to-end model for joint learning of text summarization and sentiment classification, where the sentiment classification label is treated as the further "summarization" of the text summarization output. Hence, the sentiment classification layer is put upon the text summarization layer, and a hierarchical structure is derived. Experimental results on Amazon online reviews datasets show that our model achieves better performance than the strong baseline systems on both abstractive summarization and sentiment classification.

* accepted by IJCAI-18 

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A survey on phrase structure learning methods for text classification

Jun 21, 2014
Reshma Prasad, Mary Priya Sebastian

Text classification is a task of automatic classification of text into one of the predefined categories. The problem of text classification has been widely studied in different communities like natural language processing, data mining and information retrieval. Text classification is an important constituent in many information management tasks like topic identification, spam filtering, email routing, language identification, genre classification, readability assessment etc. The performance of text classification improves notably when phrase patterns are used. The use of phrase patterns helps in capturing non-local behaviours and thus helps in the improvement of text classification task. Phrase structure extraction is the first step to continue with the phrase pattern identification. In this survey, detailed study of phrase structure learning methods have been carried out. This will enable future work in several NLP tasks, which uses syntactic information from phrase structure like grammar checkers, question answering, information extraction, machine translation, text classification. The paper also provides different levels of classification and detailed comparison of the phrase structure learning methods.

* 14 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables, International Journal on Natural Language Computing (IJNLC) Vol. 3, No.2, April 2014 

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Privacy-Preserving Classification of Personal Text Messages with Secure Multi-Party Computation: An Application to Hate-Speech Detection

Jun 05, 2019
Martine De Cock, Rafael Dowsley, Anderson C. A. Nascimento, Devin Reich, Ariel Todoki

Classification of personal text messages has many useful applications in surveillance, e-commerce, and mental health care, to name a few. Giving applications access to personal texts can easily lead to (un)intentional privacy violations. We propose the first privacy-preserving solution for text classification that is provably secure. Our method, which is based on Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC), encompasses both feature extraction from texts, and subsequent classification with logistic regression and tree ensembles. We prove that when using our secure text classification method, the application does not learn anything about the text, and the author of the text does not learn anything about the text classification model used by the application beyond what is given by the classification result itself. We perform end-to-end experiments with an application for detecting hate speech against women and immigrants, demonstrating excellent runtime results without loss of accuracy.

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Description Based Text Classification with Reinforcement Learning

Feb 08, 2020
Duo Chai, Wei Wu, Qinghong Han, Fei Wu, Jiwei Li

The task of text classification is usually divided into two stages: {\it text feature extraction} and {\it classification}. In this standard formalization categories are merely represented as indexes in the label vocabulary, and the model lacks for explicit instructions on what to classify. Inspired by the current trend of formalizing NLP problems as question answering tasks, we propose a new framework for text classification, in which each category label is associated with a category description. Descriptions are generated by hand-crafted templates or using abstractive/extractive models from reinforcement learning. The concatenation of the description and the text is fed to the classifier to decide whether or not the current label should be assigned to the text. The proposed strategy forces the model to attend to the most salient texts with respect to the label, which can be regarded as a hard version of attention, leading to better performances. We observe significant performance boosts over strong baselines on a wide range of text classification tasks including single-label classification, multi-label classification and multi-aspect sentiment analysis.

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Graph Convolutional Networks for Text Classification

Oct 17, 2018
Liang Yao, Chengsheng Mao, Yuan Luo

Text Classification is an important and classical problem in natural language processing. There have been a number of studies that applied convolutional neural networks (convolution on regular grid, e.g., sequence) to classification. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the more flexible graph convolutional neural networks (convolution on non-grid, e.g., arbitrary graph) for the task. In this work, we propose to use graph convolutional networks for text classification. We build a single text graph for a corpus based on word co-occurrence and document word relations, then learn a Text Graph Convolutional Network (Text GCN) for the corpus. Our Text GCN is initialized with one-hot representation for word and document, it then jointly learns the embeddings for both words and documents, as supervised by the known class labels for documents. Our experimental results on multiple benchmark datasets demonstrate that a vanilla Text GCN without any external word embeddings or knowledge outperforms state-of-the-art methods for text classification. On the other hand, Text GCN also learns predictive word and document embeddings. In addition, experimental results show that the improvement of Text GCN over state-of-the-art comparison methods become more prominent as we lower the percentage of training data, suggesting the robustness of Text GCN to less training data in text classification.

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An Improved Classification Model for Igbo Text Using N-Gram And K-Nearest Neighbour Approaches

Apr 01, 2020
Nkechi Ifeanyi-Reuben, Chidiebere Ugwu

This paper presents an improved classification model for Igbo text using N-gram and K-Nearest Neighbour approaches. The N-gram model was used for text representation and the classification was carried out on the text using the K-Nearest Neighbour model. Object-Oriented design methodology is used for the work and is implemented with the Python programming language with tools from Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK). The performance of the Igbo text classification system is measured by computing the precision, recall and F1-measure of the result obtained on Unigram, Bigram and Trigram represented text. The Igbo text classification on bigram represented text has highest degree of exactness (precision); result obtained with three N-gram models has the same level of completeness (recall) while trigram has the lowest level of precision. This shows that the classification on bigram Igbo represented text outperforms unigram and trigram represented texts. Therefore, bigram text representation model is highly recommended for any intelligent text-based system in Igbo language.

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Text-based classification of interviews for mental health -- juxtaposing the state of the art

Jul 29, 2020
Joppe Valentijn Wouts

Currently, the state of the art for classification of psychiatric illness is based on audio-based classification. This thesis aims to design and evaluate a state of the art text classification network on this challenge. The hypothesis is that a well designed text-based approach poses a strong competition against the state-of-the-art audio based approaches. Dutch natural language models are being limited by the scarcity of pre-trained monolingual NLP models, as a result Dutch natural language models have a low capture of long range semantic dependencies over sentences. For this issue, this thesis presents belabBERT, a new Dutch language model extending the RoBERTa[15] architecture. belabBERT is trained on a large Dutch corpus (+32GB) of web crawled texts. After this thesis evaluates the strength of text-based classification, a brief exploration is done, extending the framework to a hybrid text- and audio-based classification. The goal of this hybrid framework is to show the principle of hybridisation with a very basic audio-classification network. The overall goal is to create the foundations for a hybrid psychiatric illness classification, by proving that the new text-based classification is already a strong stand-alone solution.

* 33 pages, 7 figures, belabBERT is available on 

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Enhancement of Short Text Clustering by Iterative Classification

Jan 31, 2020
Md Rashadul Hasan Rakib, Norbert Zeh, Magdalena Jankowska, Evangelos Milios

Short text clustering is a challenging task due to the lack of signal contained in such short texts. In this work, we propose iterative classification as a method to b o ost the clustering quality (e.g., accuracy) of short texts. Given a clustering of short texts obtained using an arbitrary clustering algorithm, iterative classification applies outlier removal to obtain outlier-free clusters. Then it trains a classification algorithm using the non-outliers based on their cluster distributions. Using the trained classification model, iterative classification reclassifies the outliers to obtain a new set of clusters. By repeating this several times, we obtain a much improved clustering of texts. Our experimental results show that the proposed clustering enhancement method not only improves the clustering quality of different clustering methods (e.g., k-means, k-means--, and hierarchical clustering) but also outperforms the state-of-the-art short text clustering methods on several short text datasets by a statistically significant margin.

* 30 pages, 2 figures 

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Explicit Interaction Model towards Text Classification

Nov 23, 2018
Cunxiao Du, Zhaozheng Chin, Fuli Feng, Lei Zhu, Tian Gan, Liqiang Nie

Text classification is one of the fundamental tasks in natural language processing. Recently, deep neural networks have achieved promising performance in the text classification task compared to shallow models. Despite of the significance of deep models, they ignore the fine-grained (matching signals between words and classes) classification clues since their classifications mainly rely on the text-level representations. To address this problem, we introduce the interaction mechanism to incorporate word-level matching signals into the text classification task. In particular, we design a novel framework, EXplicit interAction Model (dubbed as EXAM), equipped with the interaction mechanism. We justified the proposed approach on several benchmark datasets including both multi-label and multi-class text classification tasks. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method. As a byproduct, we have released the codes and parameter settings to facilitate other researches.

* AAAI 2019 
* 8 pages 

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Text classification with word embedding regularization and soft similarity measure

Mar 10, 2020
Vít Novotný, Eniafe Festus Ayetiran, Michal Štefánik, Petr Sojka

Since the seminal work of Mikolov et al., word embeddings have become the preferred word representations for many natural language processing tasks. Document similarity measures extracted from word embeddings, such as the soft cosine measure (SCM) and the Word Mover's Distance (WMD), were reported to achieve state-of-the-art performance on semantic text similarity and text classification. Despite the strong performance of the WMD on text classification and semantic text similarity, its super-cubic average time complexity is impractical. The SCM has quadratic worst-case time complexity, but its performance on text classification has never been compared with the WMD. Recently, two word embedding regularization techniques were shown to reduce storage and memory costs, and to improve training speed, document processing speed, and task performance on word analogy, word similarity, and semantic text similarity. However, the effect of these techniques on text classification has not yet been studied. In our work, we investigate the individual and joint effect of the two word embedding regularization techniques on the document processing speed and the task performance of the SCM and the WMD on text classification. For evaluation, we use the $k$NN classifier and six standard datasets: BBCSPORT, TWITTER, OHSUMED, REUTERS-21578, AMAZON, and 20NEWS. We show 39% average $k$NN test error reduction with regularized word embeddings compared to non-regularized word embeddings. We describe a practical procedure for deriving such regularized embeddings through Cholesky factorization. We also show that the SCM with regularized word embeddings significantly outperforms the WMD on text classification and is over 10,000 times faster.

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A hybrid learning algorithm for text classification

Sep 23, 2010
S. M. Kamruzzaman, Farhana Haider

Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. Existing supervised learning algorithms to automatically classify text need sufficient documents to learn accurately. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification that requires fewer documents for training. Instead of using words, word relation i.e association rules from these words is used to derive feature set from preclassified text documents. The concept of Naive Bayes classifier is then used on derived features and finally only a single concept of Genetic Algorithm has been added for final classification. Experimental results show that the classifier build this way is more accurate than the existing text classification systems.

* Proc. 3rd International Conference on Electrical & Computer Engineering (ICECE 2004), Dhaka Bangladesh, pp. 577-580, Dec. 2004 
* 4 pages, International Conference 

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A Framework for Explainable Text Classification in Legal Document Review

Dec 19, 2019
Christian J. Mahoney, Jianping Zhang, Nathaniel Huber-Fliflet, Peter Gronvall, Haozhen Zhao

Companies regularly spend millions of dollars producing electronically-stored documents in legal matters. Recently, parties on both sides of the 'legal aisle' are accepting the use of machine learning techniques like text classification to cull massive volumes of data and to identify responsive documents for use in these matters. While text classification is regularly used to reduce the discovery costs in legal matters, it also faces a peculiar perception challenge: amongst lawyers, this technology is sometimes looked upon as a "black box", little information provided for attorneys to understand why documents are classified as responsive. In recent years, a group of AI and ML researchers have been actively researching Explainable AI, in which actions or decisions are human understandable. In legal document review scenarios, a document can be identified as responsive, if one or more of its text snippets are deemed responsive. In these scenarios, if text classification can be used to locate these snippets, then attorneys could easily evaluate the model's classification decision. When deployed with defined and explainable results, text classification can drastically enhance overall quality and speed of the review process by reducing the review time. Moreover, explainable predictive coding provides lawyers with greater confidence in the results of that supervised learning task. This paper describes a framework for explainable text classification as a valuable tool in legal services: for enhancing the quality and efficiency of legal document review and for assisting in locating responsive snippets within responsive documents. This framework has been implemented in our legal analytics product, which has been used in hundreds of legal matters. We also report our experimental results using the data from an actual legal matter that used this type of document review.

* 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1904.01721 

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TextZoo, a New Benchmark for Reconsidering Text Classification

Mar 19, 2018
Benyou Wang, Li Wang, Qikang Wei, Lichun Liu

Text representation is a fundamental concern in Natural Language Processing, especially in text classification. Recently, many neural network approaches with delicate representation model (e.g. FASTTEXT, CNN, RNN and many hybrid models with attention mechanisms) claimed that they achieved state-of-art in specific text classification datasets. However, it lacks an unified benchmark to compare these models and reveals the advantage of each sub-components for various settings. We re-implement more than 20 popular text representation models for classification in more than 10 datasets. In this paper, we reconsider the text classification task in the perspective of neural network and get serval effects with analysis of the above results.

* a benchmark need to be completed 

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Text Classification using the Concept of Association Rule of Data Mining

Sep 23, 2010
Chowdhury Mofizur Rahman, Ferdous Ahmed Sohel, Parvez Naushad, S. M. Kamruzzaman

As the amount of online text increases, the demand for text classification to aid the analysis and management of text is increasing. Text is cheap, but information, in the form of knowing what classes a text belongs to, is expensive. Automatic classification of text can provide this information at low cost, but the classifiers themselves must be built with expensive human effort, or trained from texts which have themselves been manually classified. In this paper we will discuss a procedure of classifying text using the concept of association rule of data mining. Association rule mining technique has been used to derive feature set from pre-classified text documents. Naive Bayes classifier is then used on derived features for final classification.

* Proc. International Conference on Information Technology, Kathmandu, Nepal, pp. 234-241, May. 2003 
* 8 Pages, International Conference 

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Early text classification: a Naive solution

Sep 20, 2015
Hugo Jair Escalante, Manuel Montes-y-Gómez, Luis Villaseñor-Pineda, Marcelo Luis Errecalde

Text classification is a widely studied problem, and it can be considered solved for some domains and under certain circumstances. There are scenarios, however, that have received little or no attention at all, despite its relevance and applicability. One of such scenarios is early text classification, where one needs to know the category of a document by using partial information only. A document is processed as a sequence of terms, and the goal is to devise a method that can make predictions as fast as possible. The importance of this variant of the text classification problem is evident in domains like sexual predator detection, where one wants to identify an offender as early as possible. This paper analyzes the suitability of the standard naive Bayes classifier for approaching this problem. Specifically, we assess its performance when classifying documents after seeing an increasingly number of terms. A simple modification to the standard naive Bayes implementation allows us to make predictions with partial information. To the best of our knowledge naive Bayes has not been used for this purpose before. Throughout an extensive experimental evaluation we show the effectiveness of the classifier for early text classification. What is more, we show that this simple solution is very competitive when compared with state of the art methodologies that are more elaborated. We foresee our work will pave the way for the development of more effective early text classification techniques based in the naive Bayes formulation.

* 8 pages, preprint submitted to SDM'16 

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Weakly-Supervised Neural Text Classification

Sep 12, 2018
Yu Meng, Jiaming Shen, Chao Zhang, Jiawei Han

Deep neural networks are gaining increasing popularity for the classic text classification task, due to their strong expressive power and less requirement for feature engineering. Despite such attractiveness, neural text classification models suffer from the lack of training data in many real-world applications. Although many semi-supervised and weakly-supervised text classification models exist, they cannot be easily applied to deep neural models and meanwhile support limited supervision types. In this paper, we propose a weakly-supervised method that addresses the lack of training data in neural text classification. Our method consists of two modules: (1) a pseudo-document generator that leverages seed information to generate pseudo-labeled documents for model pre-training, and (2) a self-training module that bootstraps on real unlabeled data for model refinement. Our method has the flexibility to handle different types of weak supervision and can be easily integrated into existing deep neural models for text classification. We have performed extensive experiments on three real-world datasets from different domains. The results demonstrate that our proposed method achieves inspiring performance without requiring excessive training data and outperforms baseline methods significantly.

* CIKM 2018 Full Paper 

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A novel text representation which enables image classifiers to perform text classification

Sep 27, 2019
Stephen M. Petrie, T'Mir D. Julius

We introduce a novel method for converting text data into abstract image representations, which allows image-based processing techniques (e.g. image classification networks) to be applied to text-based comparison problems. We apply the technique to entity disambiguation of inventor names in US patents. The method involves converting text from each pairwise comparison between two inventor name records into a 2D RGB (stacked) image representation. We then train an image classification neural network to discriminate between such pairwise comparison images, and use the trained network to label each pair of records as either matched (same inventor) or non-matched (different inventors), obtaining highly accurate results (F1: 99.09%, precision: 99.41%, recall: 98.76%). Our new text-to-image representation method could potentially be used more broadly for other NLP comparison problems, such as disambiguation of academic publications, or for problems that require simultaneous classification of both text and images.

* Minor changes, with a shorter abstract and title, and with a figure, table, and some text moved to Appendices to make the main body shorter 

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Joint Input-Label Embedding for Neural Text Classification

Jun 20, 2018
Nikolaos Pappas, James Henderson

Neural text classification methods typically treat output classes as categorical labels which lack description and semantics. This leads to an inability to train them well on large label sets or to generalize to unseen labels and makes speed and parameterization dependent on the size of the label set. Joint input-label space methods ameliorate the above issues by exploiting label texts or descriptions, but often at the expense of weak performance on the labels seen frequently during training. In this paper, we propose a label-aware text classification model which addresses these issues without compromising performance on the seen labels. The model consists of a joint input-label multiplicative space and a label-set-size independent classification unit and is trained with cross-entropy loss to optimize accuracy. We evaluate our model on text classification for multilingual news and for biomedical text with a large label set. The label-aware model consistently outperforms both monolingual and multilingual classification models which do not leverage label semantics and previous joint input-label space models.

* Under revision 

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Text classification based on ensemble extreme learning machine

May 10, 2018
Ming Li, Peilun Xiao, Ju Zhang

In this paper, we propose a novel approach based on cost-sensitive ensemble weighted extreme learning machine; we call this approach AE1-WELM. We apply this approach to text classification. AE1-WELM is an algorithm including balanced and imbalanced multiclassification for text classification. Weighted ELM assigning the different weights to the different samples improves the classification accuracy to a certain extent, but weighted ELM considers the differences between samples in the different categories only and ignores the differences between samples within the same categories. We measure the importance of the documents by the sample information entropy, and generate cost-sensitive matrix and factor based on the document importance, then embed the cost-sensitive weighted ELM into the AdaBoost.M1 framework seamlessly. Vector space model(VSM) text representation produces the high dimensions and sparse features which increase the burden of ELM. To overcome this problem, we develop a text classification framework combining the word vector and AE1-WELM. The experimental results show that our method provides an accurate, reliable and effective solution for text classification.

* 10 pages, 9 figures 

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